تأثیر هم‌زمان روش‌های آبیاری و خاک‌پوش‌های پلاستیکی بر بهره‌وری آب گرمک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار، مؤسسه تحقیقات فنی و مهندسی کشاورزی، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی،کرج، ایران

2 استادیار بخش تحقیقات علوم زراعی و باغی، مرکز تحقیقات و آموزش کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی اصفهان، سازمان تحقیقات، آموزش و ترویج کشاورزی، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

برای رسیدن به اهداف این تحقیق، آزمایشی در سه تکرار به مدت دو سال در ایستگاه تحقیقات کشاورزی کبوترآباد اصفهان اجرا شد. طرح آماری مورد استفاده کرت‌های خردشده (اسپلیت پلات بر پایه بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی) شامل روش‌های آبیاری سطحی، قطره‌ای و تراوا به‌عنوان کرت اصلی و خاکپوش‌های پلاستیکی سیاه، شفاف(سفید) و بدون خاکپوش(شاهد) به‌عنوان کرت فرعی در نظر گرفته شد. نتایج نشان داد عملکرد محصول در دو روش آبیاری قطره‌ای و سطحی با عملکرد 59 و 54 تن در هکتار اختلاف معنی‌داری نداشت. عملکرد محصول در روش آبیاری تراوا شدیداً کاهش یافت، در صورتی‌که روش آبیاری قطره‌ای آب کاربردی را نسبت به روش آبیاری سطحی 50 درصد کاهش و بهره‌وری آب کاربردی را بیش از دو برابر افزایش داد. آبیاری قطره‌ای اثر معنی‌داری بر زودرسی محصول خربره داشت، بطوری که محصول پیش‌رس 28 درصد افزایش یافت. تاثیر پوشش‌های مختلف خاک بر عملکرد، اجزای عملکرد و زودرسی محصول در سطح احتمال 5 درصد معنی‌دار بود. عملکرد و زودرسی محصول در هر دو نوع خاکپوش شفاف و مشکی افزایش یافت. بیشترین عملکرد و زودرسی محصول در آبیاری قطره‌ای و با خاکپوش شفاف به ترتیب 66500 و 22603 کیلوگرم در هکتار بدست آمد که در مقایسه با آبیاری سطحی به ترتیب 42 و 133 درصد افزایش داشت. خاکپوش‌های پلاستیکی در حفظ رطوبت خاک و کنترل علف‌های هرز به نحو مطلوبی مؤثر بودند. برای استفاده بهینه از منابع آب، کاربرد همزمان روش آبیاری قطره‌ای و خاکپوش‌های پلاستیکی در زراعت گرمک بعنوان راهکاری برای مصرف آب کمتر و دستیابی به محصول بازارپسند توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Irrigation Methods and Plastic Mulches on Water Productivity of Melon

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Akbari 1
  • Ali Farhadi 2
1 Associated Professor, Agricultural Engineering Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Crop and Horticultural Science Research Department, Isfahan Agricultural and Natural Resources Research and Education Center, AREEO, Isfahan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Due to the limited water resources for agricultural production in Iran, increasing water productivity and optimal use of water resources in the agricultural sector is essential. This experiment was conducted to study the effect of irrigation methods and plastic mulches on water productivity and early maturity of Melon culitvar “Garmak”, in Isfahan province. Statistical design was split plot based on RCBD in three replication with distributing three irrigation systems (surface, drip and porous pipe) in main plots, two types of soil covers (black and transparent and without cover as a check) in sub plots. The results showed that in terms of crop yield, there was no significant difference between drip and surface irrigation methods with a yield of 59 and 54 tons per hectare. Crop yield in the porous pipe irrigation method was drastically reduced, while the drip irrigation method reduced the applied water compared to the surface irrigation method by 50 percent and increased the applied water productivity more than 2 times. Drip irrigation had a significant effect on the early maturity of the crop, so that the early yield increased by 28 percent. The effect of different plastic mulches on yield, yield components and crop maturity was significant at 5 percent probability level. The interaction effects of irrigation method and mulching on yield and early maturity also showed a significant increase in both transparent and black mulch. Crop yield and yield of early maturity increased in both transparent and black mulch. The highest yield and early maturity of the crop were obtained in drip irrigation with transparent mulch, 66500 and 22603 kg / ha respectively, which increased by 42 and 133 percent, respectively, compared to surface irrigation without mulch. Plastic mulches were effective in reducing soil evaporation, conserving moisture, controlling soil temperature and reducing weed growth. For optimal use of water resources, the use of drip irrigation in combination with plastic mulch in Melon crops is recommended as a solution to reduce water consumption and achieve a marketable product.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Drip Irrigation
  • Isfahan
  • Mulch
  • Surface irrigation
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