اثر شیوه بهره برداری از منابع آبی بر شاخص های بهره وری مصرف آب محصول زیتون

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش ‌آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

2 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

3 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه زنجان، زنجان، ایران.

چکیده

مطالعه میدانی عوامل موثر بر بهره‌وری مصرف آب، یکی از راهکار‌های مهم در رسیدن به کشاورزی پایدار می‌باشد. در این تحقیق اثر روش بهره‌برداری از منابع آب بر شاخص‌های فیزیکی و اقتصادی بهره‌وری مصرف آب محصول زیتون مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور تعداد 30 باغ زیتون شامل 16 باغ با منبع آب از نوع چاه شخصی و 14 باغ از نوع مشاعی در شهرستان طارم واقع در استان زنجان انتخاب شد. به منظور محاسبه شاخص‌های بهره‌وری مصرف آب، پارامتر‌های آبیاری نظیر دبی ورودی و برنامه آبیاری در سه نوبت زمانی مختلف در طول فصل، عملکرد محصول، هزینه‌های تولید و درآمد حاصل از فروش محصول تعیین شد. میانگین حجم آب مصرفی در باغات تحت مدیریت چاه شخصی و مشاعی به ترتیب 9800 و 12680 متر‌مکعب در هکتار برآورد شد. میانگین شاخص‌های بهره‌وری‌ CPD، BPD و NBPD در باغات تحت مدیریت چاه شخصی به ترتیب برابر با 40/0 کیلوگرم برمتر‌مکعب، 9/46 و 4/24 هزار ریال برمترمکعب و در باغات تحت مدیریت چاه مشاعی به ترتیب برابر با 30/0 کیلوگرم برمتر‌مکعب، 4/36 و 2/15 هزار ریال بر مترمکعب برآورد شد. نتایج آزمون معنی‌داری به روش T مستقل نشان داد اختلاف معنی‌داری بین شاخص‌های مذکور در دو نوع روش بهره‌برداری وجود ندارد. عدم کنترل و نظارت بر بهره‌برداری‌ از منابع آب، دانش کم کشاورزان در مدیریت آب و آبیاری و عدم تناسب حقابه‌ها با نیاز آبی به خصوص در باغات با چاه مشاعی به عنوان مهمترین دلایل پایین بودن بهره‌وری در برخی باغات منطقه شناخته شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effect of Water Resources Utilization Methods on Olive Water Use Efficiency

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farshid Mohammadi 1
  • Hassan Ojaghlou 2
  • Mohammad Ghorbanian 3
1 Graduated M. Sc. Student, Water Science and Engineering Department, Collage of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor, Water Science and Engineering Department, Collage of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
3 M. Sc. Student, Water Science and Engineering Department, Collage of Agriculture, University of Zanjan, Zanjan, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Field study of factors affecting crop water productivity is one of the most important strategies to achieve sustainable agriculture. In this study, the effect of water resources utilization methods on physical and economic indicators of water use efficiency was investigated. To achieve this goal, 30 olive groves including 16 groves under personal ownership and 14 groves under collective ownership wells were selected in Tarom located in Zanjan province. In order to calculate the water use efficiency indicators, irrigation parameters such as water consumption volume, irrigation schedule, crop yield, as well as production costs and sales revenue were determined. The average of water consumption in groves under the personal and collective ownership wells were obtained at 9800 and 12680 m3/ha, respectively. The average of CPD, BPD and NBPD indices in groves under the personal ownership wells were calculated 0.4 kg/m3, 46.9 and 24.4 thousand Rials/m3 and in groves under the collective ownership wells were 0.3 kg/m3, 36.4 and 15.2 thousand Rials/m3. The results of the independent T-test showed that there is no significant difference between the mentioned indicators in the two types of exploitation methods. Lack of control and supervision on water resources utilization, low knowledge of farmers in irrigation management and the incompatibility of water allowance with the crop water requirement, especially in groves with collective ownership wells were recognized as the most significant reasons for reducing the water use efficiency in some olive groves of study region.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Collective
  • olive
  • Personal Well
  • productivity
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