بررسی تاثیر کاربرد بیوچار و کاه گندم بر بهره وری آب آبیاری در گیاه جو

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای، سازمان انرژی اتمی، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

5 استادیار، پژوهشگاه علوم و فنون هسته ای، سازمان انرژی اتمی، تهران، ایران.

6 دانش آموخته دکتری آبیاری و زهکشی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

کاربرد ترکیباتی که ظرفیت نگهداشت رطوبت خاک را بهبود بخشند یکی از راهکارهای افزایش کارایی مصرف آب در بخش کشاورزی و حل مشکل کم آبی است. در بسیاری منابع به جنبه­های مثبت متعدد کاربرد مواد آلی از جمله بیوچار به عنوان اصلاح­ کننده خاک و بهبودگر ظرفیت نگهداشت رطوبت اشاره شده است. بیوچار1، ترکیب غنی از کربن متخلخلی است که در اثر پیرولیز مواد آلی طبیعی تولید می­شود. در تحقیق حاضر مقادیر صفر درصد بیوچار(B1) ، دو و نیم درصد بیوچار (B2)، پنج درصد بیوچار(B3) و هفت و نیم درصد بیوچار(B4)، همچنین دو و نیم درصد کاه گندم(W1) و پنج درصد کاه(W2) به خاک با بافت لوم رسی(S1) و نیز خاک لوم شنی(S2) افزوده ­شدند. این آزمایش گلدانی بر پایه طرح کاملا تصادفی در سه تکرار و در گلخانه انجام شد. کاربرد بیوچار سبب گردید بهره­وری آب در تیمارهای  S­1­B4 و S2B4 به ترتیب 138 و 128 درصد افزایش یابد. کاه بر عملکرد زراعی و بهره­وری آب تاثیر منفی داشت به طوری که عملکرد بیولوژیک در خاک لوم رسی و لوم شنی به ترتیب 82 و 73 درصد کاهش یافت، بهره­وری آب در تیمارهای S1W1 و S2W1، 41 درصد و 25 درصد کاهش نشان داد. این کاهش­ها از لحاظ آماری معنی­دار بودند(01/0>P) و در هر دو نوع خاک با افزایش کاه، تشدید شدند. تحقیق حاضر نشان داد که کاربرد بیوچار می ­تواند راهکاری برای بهبود عملکرد و در نتیجه، بهره­ وری آب در بخش کشاورزی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The effect of biochar and Wheat Straw on irrigation water productivity in barley

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hossein Abbasalian 1
  • Jaber Soltani 2
  • Ali Bahrami Samani 3
  • Seyyed Ebrahim Hashemi Garmdareh 4
  • Azam Borzouei 5
  • Maryam Ahmadvand 6
1 Ph.D. Candidate at Irrigation and drainage engineering, Water Engineering Department, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Water Engineering Department, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Associate Professor, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Professor, Water Engineering Department, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
5 Assistant Professor, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization, Tehran, Iran.
6 Ph.D. Graduated at Irrigation and drainage engineering, Water Engineering Department, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Application of compounds that improve soil moisture retention capacity is one of the strategies to increase water use efficiency in agriculture and solve the problem of water shortage. In many sources, several positive aspects of organic matter application such as biochar as soil modifier and moisture retention capacity improvement have been noted. Biochar is a carbon-rich porous compound produced by pyrolysis of natural organic matter. In the present study, 0% biochar (B1), 2.5% biochar (B2), 5% biochar (B3) and 7.5% biochar (B4), 2.5% wheat straw (W1) and 5% straw (W2) were added to soil with clay loam (S1) texture and sandy loam soil (S2). This pot experiment was performed based on a completely randomized design in three replications and in greenhouse. Biochar application increased water productivity in S1B4 and S2B4 treatments by 138% and 128%, respectively. Straw had a negative effect on agronomic yield and water productivity, so that biological yield in clay loam and sandy loam soil decreased by 82% and 73%, respectively. Water productivity decreased by 41% and 25% in S1W1 and S2W1 treatments. These reductions were statistically significant (P<0.01) and were exacerbated by increased straw in both soil types. The present study showed that biochar application can be a way to improve yield and, consequently, water productivity in agriculture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • organic matter
  • Plant biomass
  • Soil moisture
  • Soil nutrients
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