بررسی تأثیر توأمان مقادیر مختلف آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژن بر عملکرد و بهره‌وری ذرت در آبیاری قطره‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

4 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی، گروه مهندسی آبیاری و آبادانی، دانشکده مهندسی و فناوری کشاورزی، پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

چکیده

بهره‌وری آب ذرت به‌شدت تحت تأثیر عملکرد گیاه و میزان آب تأمین‌شده در طول فصل است، بنابراین برنامه‌ریزی آبیاری و کودآبیاری از اهمیت زیادی برای افزایش بهره‌وری آب برخوردارند. هدف از انجام این پژوهش بررسی تأثیر هم‌زمان سطوح مختلف آب و نیتروژن بر مقدار زیست‌توده، عملکرد دانه ذرت، بهره‌وری آب آبیاری و بهره‌وری نیتروژن و یافتن بهترین میزان آبیاری و کودآبیاری نیتروژن برای تولید ذرت بود. کشت ذرت (سینگل کراس ۷۰۴)، در سال ۱۳۹۷ در قالب سه تیمار آبیاری (I1، I2و I3 به ترتیب برای تأمین ۱۰۰، ۷۵ و ۵۰ درصد تبخیر- تعرق گیاه) و چهار تیمار نیتروژن (N1، N2، N3 و N4 به ترتیب ۲۰۰، ۱۲۵ و ۵۰ و صفر کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار) در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. نتایج حاکی از تأثیر معنی‌دار تیمارهای آبیاری، نیتروژن و اثر متقابل آن‌ها بر مقدار زیست‌توده و عملکرد دانه ذرت بود. حداکثر زیست‌توده و عملکرد دانه ذرت، به ترتیب برابر با ۰۲/۲۳ تن در هکتار و ۷۸/۱۲ تن در هکتار برای تیمار آبیاری کامل با ۲۰۰ کیلوگرم نیتروژن در هکتار (I1N1) به دست آمد. حداکثر بهره‌وری آب آبیاری برای زیست‌توده و عملکرد دانه به ترتیب برابر ۹۳/۴ و ۷/۲ کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب برای تیمار I2N1 و حداقل آن‌ها به ترتیب برابر ۳۷/۳ و ۷۷/۱ کیلوگرم بر مترمکعب برای تیمار I1N4 به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating the combined effect of different amounts of irrigation water and nitrogen fertilizer on maize yield and productivity in drip irrigation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Saeed Jafari 1
  • Hamideh Noory 2
  • Hamed Ebrahimian 2
  • Abdolmajid Liaghat 3
  • Yasamin Sohani 4
1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
2 Associate professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
3 Professor, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
4 B.Sc. Graduated, Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, College of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Maize is one of the most important field crops in the world and Maize production with a cultivated area of about 350000 hectares and an average grain yield of 3.5 ton. ha-1 is very important and common in Iran. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different levels of water and nitrogen on maize biomass, grain yield, irrigation water productivity and nitrogen productivity and finding the best irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer practices for producing Maize. Maize (SC. 704) was planted in 2018 as three irrigation treatments (I1, I2 and I3 to provide 100, 75 and 50 percent of crop evapotranspiration respectively) and four nitrogen treatments (N1, N2, N3 and N4 to provide 200, 125, 50 and zero kg of nitrogen per hectare in total, respectively) in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results showed a significant effect of irrigation, nitrogen and their interaction effects on maize biomass and grain yield. Maximum maize biomass and grain yield were 23.02 ton. ha-1 and 12.78 kg. ha-1 for full irrigation treatment with 200 kg. ha-1 nitrogen (I1N1) treatment, respectively. Maximum irrigation water productivity for maize biomass and grain yield were 4.93 and 2.7 kg. m-3 for I2N1 and minimum irrigation water productivity for maize biomass and grain yield were 3.37 and 1.77 kg. m-3 for I1N4 treatments, respectively.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Deficit irrigation
  • Drip Irrigation
  • fertigation
  • productivity
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