برآورد میزان تبخیر - تعرق و ضریب گیاهی گیاه دارویی خرفه به روش لایسیمتری در شهرستان شیراز

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه بیرجند، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه علوم و مهندسی آب، مجتمع آموزش عالی میناب، دانشگاه هرمزگان، ایران.

چکیده

تعیین دقیق نیاز آبی گیاهان نقش اساسی در تعیین ابعاد تأسیسات آب، برنامه‌ریزی آبیاری، افزایش بهره‌وری و راندمان آبیاری دارد. دقیق‌ترین و استانداردترین روش تعیین آب مورد نیاز گیاهان، روش بیلان آب با استفاده از لایسیمتر می‌باشد. گیاه خرفه به‌عنوان یک گیاه دارویی از اهمیت ویژه‎ای در مناطق مختلف جهان برخوردار است. خرفه با بسیاری از شرایط نامطلوب مانند خشکی، شوری و کمبود مواد غذایی سازگار است. براین اساس، پژوهشی با هدف تعیین ضریب گیاهی (K_C) گیاه دارویی خرفه و با استفاده از سه لایسیمتر زهکش‎دار در طول فصل زراعی ۱۳۹۶ در شهرستان شیراز اجرا گردید. تبخیر- تعرق روزانه واقعی به روش بیلان آب در لایسیمترها برآورد شد و تبخیر- تعرق مرجع با استفاده از گیاه چمن 12 سانتی‎متری (گیاه مرجع) محاسبه گردید .از تقسیم تبخیر-تعرق واقعی بر تبخیر- تعرق مرجع، ضریب گیاهی روزانه برای طول دوره رشد مورد مطالعه اندازه‎گیری شد. در پایان فصل و در مراحل مختلف رشد، مقادیر مربوط به ضرایب گیاهی خرفه شامل مراحل ابتدایی، توسعه، میانی و نقطه انتهایی به ترتیب برابر ۹/۰، ۱/1، ۴/۱ و 8/0 بدست آمد. نیاز آبی فصلی گیاه خرفه در منطقه مورد مطالعه ۹۷/۳۵۸ میلیمتر محاسبه گردید. میانگین تبخیر و تعرق دوره ابتدایی ۶۸ میلیمتر، دوره توسعه و رشد ۶/۸۷ میلیمتر، دوره میانی ۱۱/۹۶ میلیمتر و دوره پایانی ۲۴/۱۰۷ میلیمتر بدست آمد. نتیجه‌گیری کلی این تحقیق کشت این گیاه کم‌مصرف آب در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشکی ازجمله شهرستان شیراز است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

The estimation of evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of purslane herb plant in Shiraz

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Miri 1
  • Abbas Khashei-Siuki 2
  • Amir Salari 3
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Sciences and Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. Birjand, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Sciences and Water Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Birjand. Birjand, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Sciences and Water Engineering, Minab Higher Education Center, University of Hormozgan, Minab, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Accurate determination of water requirement of plants plays an essential role in determining the dimensions of water facilities, irrigation planning, increasing productivity and irrigation efficiency. The most accurate and standard method of determining the water required by plants is the water balance method using a lysimeter. Purslane as a medicinal plant crops as weeds, special importance has grown in many regions of the world. Purslane many adverse conditions such as drought, salinity and lack of food is consistent. Accordingly, in order to determine crop coefficient (Kc) herb purslane and using three drainage lysimeter during a season in Shiraz. Actual daily evapotranspiration was estimated by water balance equation in lysimeter and potential evapotranspiration with grass plant 12 cm (plant source) was calculated. By dividing the actual evapotranspiration of the plant on potential evapotranspiration, crop coefficient was measured daily during the growing period studied. At the end of the season and at different stages of growth, the values related to portulaca oleracea plant coefficients including initial, developmental, middle and endpoints were 0.9, 1.1, 1.4 and 0.8, respectively. The seasonal water requirement of portulaca oleracea in the study area was 358.97 mm. The average evapotranspiration of the initial, the development, the middle and the final periods were obtained 68, 87.6, 96.11 and 107.24 mm, respectively. The general conclusion of this study is the cultivation of this low water consumption plant in arid and semi-arid regions, including Shiraz.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Evapotranspiration
  • purslane
  • Water balance
  • Water requirement
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