تعیین کارایی مصرف آب و تابع تولید آب-نیتروژن برای گیاه تربچه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران،تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه مهندسی آب، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استادیار، گروه علوم باغبانی، پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

بحران آب یکی از مهم‌ترین مشکلات در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک مانند ایران می‌باشد. همچنین در این مناطق مصرف بی‌رویه کود عواقب زیست‌محیطی شدیدی را ایجاد نموده است. در چنین شرایطی ارزیابی واکنش گیاهان به تنش آبی و مقدار کود و تخمین تابع تولید جهت مصرف بهینه آب و کود اجتناب‌ناپذیر است. هدف از تحقیق حاضر تعیین ارتباط عملکرد، عمق آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژنه گیاه تربچه می‌باشد. بدین منظور یک پژوهش در سال 98 در یکی از گلخانه‌های تحقیقاتی پردیس ابوریحان، دانشگاه تهران، به اجرا در آمد. آزمایش در قالب طرح آماری کاملا تصادفی با دو تیمار عمق آب آبیاری و کود نیتروژن در سه تکرار انجام گرفت. در این تحقیق، چهار سطح آب آبیاری شامل 120(I1)، 100 (I2)، 80 (I3) و 60 (I4) درصد آب مورد نیاز گیاه تربچه استفاده شد. سطوح کود نیتروژن شامل 120 (N1)، 100 (N2)، 80 (N3) و 60 (N4) درصد نیاز کودی گیاه تربچه بود. در این تحقیق از چهار تابع خطی ساده، کاب داگلاس، درجه دوم و متعالی برای تعیین تابع تولید آب – نیتروژن گیاه تربچه استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد که تابع تولید درجه دوم عملکرد خشک تربچه را با دقت بالاتری برآورد می‌نماید. همچنین نتایج نشان داد که با کاربرد تیمارهای آبیاری I3 (142 میلی‌متر) و کود نیتروژنی N2 (150 کیلوگرم در هکتار) بیشترین عملکرد و کارایی مصرف آب به دست آمد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determination of water use efficiency and water-nitrogen production function for Radish crop

نویسندگان [English]

  • Soleiman Khayyam 1
  • Mahmoud Mashal 2
  • Sasan Aliniaeifard 3
  • Maryam Varavipour 2
1 M.Sc. Student, Department of Water Engineering, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Water Engineering, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Horticultural, Aburaihan Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Water crisis is one of the most important problems in arid and semi-arid areas such as Iran. Also, in these areas indiscriminate use of nitrogen fertilizer have had severe environmental consequences. Thus, assessment of plant responses to water stress, the amount of nitrogen and, estimation of production function for determining optimal use of water and fertilizer is inevitable. The objective of this study was to investigate the interrelations of yield, irrigation depth and, applied nitrogen fertilizer of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.). For this purpose, the study was conducted in the College of Aburaihan (Southeast Tehran, Pakdasht, Iran) in 2020. Experiment was arranged based on randomized complete block design with two treatments of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation water depths with three replications. In this study the Levels of irrigation depth were 120% (I1), 100%(I2), 80%(I3) and 60%(I4) of irrigation requirement the levels of applied nitrogen fertilizer were 120%(N1), 100%(N2), 80%(N3) and, 60%(N4) of nitrogen use requirement. In this study four equations of of linear, Cobb-Douglas, quadratic and transcendental were used to determine the water-nitrogen production function production. The results showed that the quadratic equation simulates the dry yield of radish with a higher accuracy. The results showed also, the I3 (142 mm) and N2 nitrogen (150 Kg per hectare) treatments, were yielded the highest yield and irrigation water use efficiency.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Production Function
  • water stress
  • Water use efficiency
  • Yield components
  1. Ahmadi Saraeilani, A., Mashal, M., Azadegan, B., & Kamali, P. (2020). Field evaluation of the effect of two superabsorbent polymers A200 and Stackosorb on hydraulic performance in furrow irrigation). Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 10(2), 173–187. (In Persian).
  2. Alam, M.M., Siwar, C., Jaafar, A.H., Talib B., & Salleh, K.B.O. (2013). Agricultural vulnerability and adaptation to climatic changes in Malaysia: Review on paddy sector. Current World Environment, 8(1), 1–12.
  3. Asadi, L., Khoshravesh, M., PourGholam, M., Liaghat, A., & Youri, M. (2018). Estimation of soybean water–nitrogen production function. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research. 49(3), 672–665. (In Persian).
  4. Badr, M.A., El-Tohamy, W.A., & Zaghloul, A.M. (2012). Yield and water use efficiency of potato grown under different irrigation and nitrogen levels in an arid region. Agricultural Water Management, 110, 9-15.
  5. Bahramloo, R. & Naseri, A. (2010). Effect of deficit irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of potato cultivar santeh. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 4(10), 90–98. (In Persian).
  6. Baloch, P.A., Riaz, U., Nizamani, F.K., Solangi, A.H., & Siddiqui, A.A. (2014). Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers on growth and yield characteristics of radish (Raphanus sativus L.). American-Eurasian Journal Agriculture and Environment Science, 14 (6), 565–569.
  7. Bastiaanssen, W. G. M., & Steduto, P. (2017). The water productivity score (WPS) at global and regional level: Methodology and first results from remote sensing measurements of wheat, rice and maize. Science of Total Environment, 75(1), 595–611
  8. Brevedan, R. E., & Egli, D. B. (2003). Short periods of water stress during seed filling, leaf senescence and yield of soybean. Crop Science, 43(6), 2083–2088
  9. Chen, J.L., Kang, S.Z., Du, T.S., Qiu, R.J., Guo, P., & Chen, R.Q. (2013). Quantitative response of greenhouse tomato yield and quality to water deficit at different growth. Stages. Agricultural Water Management, 129, 152–162.
  10. Darwish, T.M., Atallah, T.W., Hajhasan, S., & Haidar, A. (2006). Nitrogen and water use efficiency of fertigated processing potato. Agricultural Water Management, 85(1-2), 95–104.
  11. Davidson, E.A., Suddick, E.C., Rice, C.W., & Prokopy, L.S. (2015). More food, low pollution (Mo Fo Lo Po): a grand challenge for the 21st century. Journal of Environmental Quality, 44(2), 305–311.
  12. Dijkstra, F.A., Carrillo, Y., Aspinwall, M.J., Maier, C., Canarini, A., Tahaei, H., Choat, B., & Tissue, D.T. (2016). Water, nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies of four tree species in response to variable water and nutrient supply. Plant and Soil. 406(1/2), 187–199.
  13. English, M.J., Solomon, K.H., & Hoffman, G. J. (2002). A paradigm shift in irrigation management. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 128(5), 267–277.
  14. Esmaeili, M.A., & Yaseri, E. (2011). Evaluation of the effects of water stress and different levels of nitrogen on sugar beet (Beta Vulgaris). International Journal of Biology, 3(2), 89–93.
  15. Esmaili, M., Mashal, M., Alinaefard, S., & Azadegan, B. (2019). Effect of different light intensities on water use efficiency of lettuce under controlled conditions. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, (9)1, 43–53. (In Persian).
  16. Evans, R.G., & Sadler, E.J. (2008). Methods and technologies to improve efficiency of water use. Water Resources Researches, 44 (7), 1–15.
  17. Fathi, P., & Soltani, M. (2012). Optimization of water use efficiency and yield in potato using marginal analysis theory. Journal of Soil and Water Resources Conservation, 2(2), 85–93. (In Persian).
  18. Fereres, E., & Soriano, M.A. (2007). Deficit irrigation for reducing agriculture water use. Journal of Experimental Botany, 58(2), 147–159.
  19. Ferreira, T. C., & Goncalves, D. A. (2007). Crop-yield/water-use production functions of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum, L.) grown under differential nitrogen and irrigation treatments in a hot, dry climate. Agricultural water management, 90(1-2), 45–55.
  20. Fu, Q.P., Wang, Q. J, Shen X, L., & Fan, J. (2014). Optimizing water and nitrogen inputs for winter wheat cropping system on the Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Arid Land. 6(2), 230–242.
  21. Gercak, S., Boydak, E., Okant, M. & Dikilitas, M. (2009). Water pillow irrigation compared to furrow irrigation for soybean production in a semi-arid area. Agricultural Water Management, 96(1), 87–92.
  22. Giuliani, M.M., Carucci, F., Nardella, E., Francavilla, M., Ricciardi, L., Lotti, C., & Gatta, G. (2018). Combined effects of deficit irrigation and strobilurin application on gas exchange, yield and water use efficiency in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). Scientia Horticulturae, 233, 149–158.
  23. Guvenc, I. (2002). Effect of nitrogen fertilization on growth, yield and nitrogen contents of radishes. Gartenbauwissenschaft, 67, 23–27.
  24. Hamzehzadeh, M., Fathi, P., Javadi, T., & Hassani, A. (2011). The effect of different irrigation water levels on water use efficiency in basil plant (Ocimum Basilicum var. Keshkeny Levelu) using marginal analysis theory. Journal of Water and Soil, 25(5), 953–960. (In Persian).
  25. Jawad, N., Nawaz, S., Hammad, H.M., Salik, M.R., & Farhad, W. (2015). Nitrogen and sowing method affect radish growth and yield under arid environments of Pakistan. Science International, 27(3), 2245–2250.
  26. Jilani M.S., Burki T., & Waseem K. (2010). Effects of nitrogen on growth and yield of radish. Journal of Agricultural Research, 48(2), 219–225.
  27. Liu, W. Z., & Zhang, X. C. (2007). Optimizing water and fertilizer input using elasticity index: A case study with Mize in the Loess plateau of china. Field Crop Research, 100, 302–310.
  28. Mashal, M., Varavipour, M., Sadatnouri, S.A., & Zare-Zirak, E. (2008). Optimizing consumptive water depth for corn by deficit-irrigation (case study: Varamin area). Agricultural research: Water, Soil and Plants in Agriculture, 8 (4), 123–134. (In Persian).
  29. Piri, H. (2017). Determination of water production function-nitrogen fertilizer and evaluation of indices of onion production in Zahak Sistan and Baluchestan region. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 7(2), 287–303. (In Persian).
  30. Qiu, R.J., Du, T.S., Kang, S.Z., Chen, R.Q., & Wu, L.S. (2015). Influence of water and nitrogen stress on stem sap flow of tomato grown in a solar greenhouse. Journal of American Society of Horticultural Science, 140, 111–119.
  31. Rahn, C.R. (2000). Nitrogen and field production of vegetable crops. Acta Horticulturae. 533, 361-370.
  32. Satari, A.F., Srinivasa, V., Shivaprasad, M., & Ganapathi, M. (2020). Study on growth and root yield of radish (Raphanus sativus Lam.) as Influenced by nutrition. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 9(8), 2466–2471.
  33. Sawyer, J., Nafziger, E., Randall, G., Bundy, L., Rehm, G., & Joern, B. (2015). Concepts and rationale for regional nitrogen rate guidelines for corn. Retrieved from www.extension.iastate.edu.Publications/2015.pdf
  34. Shapiro, C.A., Ferguson, R.B., Ilergen, G.W., Dobcrmann, A.R., & Wortrnann, C.S. (2003). Fertilizer suggestions for corn. University of Nebraska. NcbGuide 074-174-A. Lincoln,NE. http://www.ianrpubs.unl.edu/sendlt/g174.pdf
  35. Sohrabi, Y., Shakiba, M. R., Abdollahian Noghabi, M., Rahimzadeh Khoii, F., Tourchi, M., & Fotohi, K. (2006). Investigation of limited irrigation and root harvesting dates on yield and some of quality characteristics of sugar beet. Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi, 70, 8–15. (In Persian).
  36. Tayel, M.Y., EI- Dardiry, E.I., Shaaban, S.M., & Sabren, K.P. (2010). Effect of injector types and irrigation and nitrogen level On: III – cost analysis of garlic production. Journal of Applied Science Research, 6(7), 822–829.
  37. Tognetti, R., d’Andria, R., Morelli, G., Calandrelli, D., & Fragnito, F. (2004). Irrigation effects on daily and seasonal variations of trunk sap flow and leaf water relations in olive trees. Plant and Soil, 263, 249–264.
  38. Tripathi, A. K., Ram, R. B., Rout, S., Kumar, A., & Patra, S. S. (2017). Studies on the effect of nitrogen levels and spacing on quality traits of radish (Raphanus ativus L.) Cv. Kashi Sweta. International Journal of Chemestry Studies, 5(6), 537–540.
  39. Yousaf, M., Bashir, S., Raza, H., Shah, A.N., Iqbal, J., Arif, M., Bukhari, M.A., Muhammad, S., Hashim, S., Alkahtani, J., Alwahibi, M.S., & Hu, C., (2021). Role of nitrogen and magnesium for growth, yield and nutritional quality of radish. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, 28(5), 3021–3030.
  40. Zhai, B. N., & Li, S. X. (2003). Effect of water and nitrogen cooperation on winter wheat yield and quality. Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, 9(1), 26–322.