روشی نوین برای تامین نیاز آبی برنج براساس پتانسیل ماتریک نزدیک به اشباع خاک

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه منابع طبیعی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه تولیدات گیاهی، دانشکده کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه گنبد کاووس، گنبد کاووس، ایران.

چکیده

در مناطق خشک و نیمه‌خشک ایران، آب مهم‌ترین عامل محدودکننده کشت برنج است. در این پژوهش، با هدف بررسی کشت برنج به‌روش تأمین رطوبت پیوسته نزدیک به اشباع خاک در کنار برخی ترکیبات القاکننده رشد، آزمایشی به‌صورت فاکتوریل در قالب طرح کامل تصادفی در شش تکرار و با دو تیمار آبیاری (غرقابی و زیرسطحی سفالی) و سه تیمار القاگر (شاهد، اسیدسالیسیلیک و مایکوریز) در سال 1395 در مزرعه تحقیقاتی دانشگاه گنبد کاووس اجرا شد. برای تأمین رطوبت پیوسته نزدیک به اشباع خاک از نازل آبیاری زیرسطحی و از تیمارهای اسید سالیسیلیک به‌صورت محلولپاشی برگی با غلظت 2 میلی‎مولار و مایکوریز به‌صورت 5 درصد حجمی مخلوط با خاک استفاده شد. پس از برداشت گیاه برنج، صفات زراعی شامل ارتفاع بوته، طول خوشه اصلی، جرم دانه پر، جرم هزاردانه، جرم خوشه اصلی، جرم کل خوشه‎ها، عملکرد دانه، عملکرد بیولوژیکی، حجم آب مصرفی، شاخص بهره‌وری و کارایی مصرف آب و شاخص برداشت اندازه‌گیری و محاسبه شد. مقدار عملکرد دانه در واحد سطح برای روش آبیاری غرقابی به‌ترتیب برای تیمار‌های اسید سالیسیلیک، مایکوریز و شاهد به‌ترتیب 5170، 4710 و 4202 کیلوگرم بر هکتار بود. در حالی‌که این مقادیر برای روش آبیاری زیرسطحی به‌ترتیب 4985، 4807 و 4063 به‌دست آمد. هم‌چنین نتایج نشان داد که اختلاف عملکرد دانه برنج، عملکرد بیولوژیکی و شاخص برداشت بین روش‌های آبیاری معنی‌دار نبود، اما کارایی مصرف آب و شاخص بهره‌وری آب در سامانه آبیاری زیرسطحی به‌طور معنی‌داری بیش‌تر از آبیاری غرقابی بود. به‌طورکلی روش تأمین رطوبت نزدیک به اشباع خاک قادر به افزایش کارایی سیستم آبیاری زیر سطحی در مقایسه با روش مرسوم شده بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A new method for providing water requirement of rice culture based on near-saturated soil matric potential

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hojjat Ghorbani Vaghei 1
  • Hossein Sabouri 2
  • Fakhtak Taliei 3
1 Assistant Professor, Natural resources Department, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Plant production Department, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor. Plant production Department, Gonbad Kavous University, Gonbad Kavous, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Water is one of the main important environmental factors limiting rice cultivation, in arid and semiarid regions like Iran. In order to evaluate the effect of growth inducers on sub-irrigation technology performance in rice water requirement, this field experiment was conducted as a factorial plot, based on completely randomized design with 6 replications, with two irrigation treatments (flooding and sub-irrigation with porous clay capsules), and two inducers (Mycorrhiza and salicylic acid) in 2016 at the research farm of GKU. Salicylic acid was used as seed treatment along with leaf spray in the concentration of 2 mM, two times in vegetative and reproductive growth. Mycorrhiza was used as root inoculation and was also mixed (20 gr.m-3) with the top 40 cm of soil. In this study, some morphological traits including plant height, the main panicle length, the weight of filled seeds, 1000-grain weight, weight of main panicle, the weight of whole panicles, grain yield, biological yield, water consumption, water productivity, water use efficiency and harvest index were measured, calculated, and assessed after harvesting. Grain yield for flood irrigation method for salicylic acid, mycorrhiza and control treatments were 5170, 4710, and 4202 kg.ha-1, respectively. While these values were 4985, 4807 and 4063 kg.ha-1 for the subsurface irrigation method, respectively. The results showed that rice grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were not significant in the two irrigation methods. But the water use efficiency and water productivity index in the subsurface irrigation system were significantly higher than the flood irrigation. Finally, the near-saturated soil matric potential method was able to increase the subsurface irrigation efficiency compared to the flood irrigation method at rice culture.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Clay capsule
  • Growth inducers
  • Soil moisture content
  • subsurface Irrigation
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