خوانش معاهده 1973 هیرمند با تمسک به اصول تفسیر کنوانسیون وین ۱۹۶۹

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار حقوق بین الملل دانشکده حقوق و علوم سیاسی، دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، مشهد، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت منابع آب، دانشکده پردیس کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه تهران، کرج، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

تالاب‌های بین‌المللی هامون دارای ارزش‌ اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، زیست‌بومی و حیاتی هستند. این تالاب‌ها میراث مشترک بشری بوده و حق انکارناپذیری از منابع آبی حوضه آبریز هیرمند دارند. به دلیل ارزش‌های متعدد تالاب‌های هامون در حیات سیستان بزرگ، این مقاله با روش تاریخی-توصیفی-تحلیلی و از طریق استناد به مراجع کتابخانه‌ای، درصدد بازخوانی معاهده 1973 رودخانه هیرمند (مشترک بین ایران و افغانستان) با هدف بررسی حقابه زیست‌محیطی تالاب‌های هامون از تقسیم آب صورت گرفته در معاهده مذکور است. بدین منظور معاهده 1973 هیرمند با استناد به اصول تفسیر در «کنواسیون وین 1969» که از جمله معاهدات قانون‌ساز و حاوی قواعد عام حقوق بین‌الملل حاکم بر معاهدات می‌باشد، تفسیر شده است. تفسیر معاهده 1973 و درک رویه تقسیم آب مشترک رودخانه هیرمند نشان می‌دهد در بیش از 115 سال در مراودات آبی ایران و افغانستان، حقابه زیست‌محیطی هامون‌ها نادیده گرفته شده‌ و حقابه و نیاز زیست‌محیطی تالاب‌های بین‌المللی هامون در مذاکرات منجر به معاهده 1973 و خود معاهده مذکور در نظر گرفته نشده است. از این‌رو، توجه به ارزش حیاتی تالاب‌های بین‌المللی هامون، اتخاذ سیاست‌ها و انجام اقدامات لازم برای تأمین نیاز و حقابه زیست‌محیطی با مشارکت دو کشور کرانه‌ای این تالاب ضروری است و مسئولیتی عرفی در پی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Understanding 1973 the Helmand Treaty by Invoking Rules of Interpretation According to Vienna Convention 1969

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azam Amini 1
  • Seyedeh Zahra Ghoreishi 2
  • Hojjat Mianabadi 3
1 Assistant Professor of Public International Law of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
2 M.Sc. Graduate of Water Management, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Hamoun international wetlands possess social, economic, cultural, protective, and ecological values. As the common heritage of mankind and according to the rules of international environmental customary law, these wetlands have an undeniable right from the Helmand River Basin water resources. Due to the vital values of Hamun wetlands, this paper aims to interpret the 1973 Helmand Treaty in order to find out what is the Hamoun wetlands water right in the 1973 treaty. Accordingly, the 1973 Helmand Treaty is interpreted based on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969). Results reveal that the environmental demands of the Hamoun wetlands have not been considered in the subject and context of the treaty. It is necessary to provide the Hamoun wetlands water rights, which has been neglected in Iran and Afghanistan hydropolitical interaction for more than 115 years. Therefore, it must be paid attention to that the riparian states which have a customary commitment to supply the environmental demands shall provide guaranteed environmental water rights for the Hamouns wetlands.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Helmand River Delta Commission
  • Helmand Valley Project
  • interpretation of treaties
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