Investigation of Water Quality Impact on Structures of Voshmgir Dam and Its Irrigation Network

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.

2 Department of Renewable Energies and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

3 Department of Irrigation and Reclamation Engineering, College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Faculty of agriculture, University of Tehran, Karaj, Iran.



This study was aimed to investigate the risk of chemical damages originated from water quality on concrete structures of Voshmgir dam and its irrigation network. In this regard, field survey and water sampling from the dam and its network were carried out in June 2022. In order to determine the intensity of water chemical aggression to concrete, the results of water quality tests were analyzed using soft water aggression indices and well known international standards. Also, the temporal changes of water chemical aggression was investigated using the data received from Golestan water authority. Langelier and Ryznar indices for dam water in June 2021 are -0.6 and 8.6, respectively, and based on these indices, the dam water is corrosive and very corrosive, respectively, and the concrete structure of  spillway is exposed to severe soft water attack. In all studied months, there has been aggression risk of at least one damaging agent to concrete. In December 2021, Ryznar index was 8.49 and the amounts of sulfate and magnesium were 400 and 199 mg/liter, respectively, and there has been a risk of simultaneous aggression by three factors of soft water, sulfate and magnesium. Assessment of water quality of Voshmgir dam in five months showed that the water is corrosive in four months and there is a risk of sulfate and magnesium ions reaction with concrete in two months. So, to protect the spillway’s concrete structure and lining of irrigation canals against leaching by the corrosive dam water and damages originated from reaction of sulfate and magnesium ions with concrete, utilization of epoxy coatings is suggested.


Main Subjects

  1. American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association & Water Environment Federation, USA. (2017). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water.
  2. Anand, B., Sharma, S. N., Pathak, R. P., Kachhal, P. I., & Sharma, P. (2015). Impact of soft water attack on dam concrete, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, 5(03), 357-363.
  3. Ayers, R. S., & Westcot, D. W. (1985). Water quality for agriculture (Vol. 29, p. 174). Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏
  4. Ballim, Y., Alexander, M., & Beushausen, H. (2009). Durability of concrete, Chapter 9. In: Owens, G (Ed.). Fulton’s Concrete Technology, 9th ed. Midrand: Cement & Concrete Institute, 155-188.
  5. Behera, J. (2019). Assessment of water quality parameters of seepage water from crack areas of Hirakud Dam. In: International dam safety conference, 13th–14th Feb, Bhubaneswar, India, 351-358.
  6. Bhuyan, S.C., Behera, J., Kar, J., & Barik, P.K. (2022). Seepage of water quality analysis of a concrete gravity dam using langlier and aggressive index. Advanced Modelling and Innovations in Water Resources Engineering. Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering, (176). Springer, Singapore.
  7. Biczok, I. (1972). Concrete corrosion-Concrete protection. Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest. 500 p.
  8. Canadian Standard Association CSA Standard A23.1. (2019). Concrete materials and methods of concrete construction/Test methods and standard practices for concrete.
  9. (2011). The State of the World's Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture- Managing Systems at Risk, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome and Earthscan, London.
  10. French National Standard p18-011. (1985). assessing aggressivity due to pH, Ammonium, Magnesium and Sulphate ions.
  11. Han, F., Liu, R., & Yan, P. (2014). Effect of fresh water leaching on the microstructure of hardened composite binder pastes. journal of Construction and Building Materials, 68, 630-636.
  12. International Commission on Large Dams, ICOLD Bulletin No. 71, (1989). Exposure of Dam Concrete to Special Aggressive Waters–Guidelines and Recommendations, for assessing aggressivity of soft water.
  13. Koszelnik, P., Kaleta, J., & Bartoszek, L. (2018). An assessment of water quality in dam reservoirs, considering their aggressive properties. In: E3S web of conferences, vol. 45, p 00035. EDP Sciences.
  14. Langlier, W. F. (1936). The analytical control of anti-corrosion water treatment. Jourrnal of American Water Works Association, 28(10), 1500-1521.
  15. Mariana, , & Cornel, T. (2011). Defects in Concrete Dams, JAES, 1(14), 73-78.
  16. Mason, P. J. (1990). The effects of aggressive water on dam concrete. Constr Build Mater, 4(3), 115-118.
  17. Mohd-Asharuddin, S., Zayadi, N., Rasit, W., & Othman, N. (2015). Water Quality Characteristics of Sembrong Dam Reservoir, Johor, Malaysia, In: proceedings of International Conference of Soft Soil Engineering (SEIC2015), IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing, pp.1-6.
  18. Morton, T. H. (1977). An algorithm for the langelier index of process waters. Jrnl. of the Inst. of water Engrs and Scientists, 31(1).
  19. Otieno, M., Alexander, M., & Plessis, J. (2017). Soft water attack on concrete tunnel linings in the Ingula pumped storage hydro-power scheme: Assessment of concrete resistance and protection. Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering, 59(3), 57-67.
  20. Prabhakar, K., Pathak, RP. & Sivakumar, N. (2016). Water quality impact on the dam concrete for upcoming pumped storage scheme in west Bengal, International journal of eng. sci. & research technology, 5(2).
  21. Ryznar, J. W., & Langelier, W. F. (1944). A new index for determining amount of calcium carbonate scale formed by a water, American Water Works Assoc., 36(4), 472-486.
  22. Ryznar, J.W. (1944). A new index for determining amount of calcium carbonate scale formed by a water. of American water works association, Vol. 36, 472-0483.
  23. United States. Bureau of Reclamation, United States. Department of the Interior. Water, & Power Resources Service. (1981). Concrete Manual. US Bureau of Reclamation.
  24. Wankhade, R. R. (2015). Water Quality Study: Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Neelona Dam, Yavatmal (Maharastra) India, International Journal of Scientific and Applied Science (IJSEAS), 1(08), 495-497.
  25. Yousefi, Gh. (1991). Report of Voshmgir Resevoir operation, Golestan Water Regional Co. 167p. (In Persian).