From water conflict resolution to water conflict transformation

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Master student, Water Engineering and Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

2 Ph.D. Candidate, Water Engineering and Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Political Science Department, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, Iran.

4 Assistant Professor, Water Engineering and Management Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

5 Associate Professor, Engineering Systems and Services Department, Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands.


The existence of multiple stakeholders with different interests, norms, goals, and values has made conflict an inseparable part of complex water systems. The destructive effects of conflict and undesired consequences on human-natural water resources systems have highlighted the need to recognize the appropriate approach to deal with water conflicts. Various methods and models have been applied in water conflict studies so far - such as optimization-simulation, game theory, water market, benefit-sharing, and interdependence. Although these models have been applied in several studies addressing subnational and transboundary river basin conflicts, the proposed solutions, strategies, and policies using these models have not led to effective dealing with water conflicts in many cases. Analysis and identification of the causes of inefficiency of conventional models in the water conflict studies led to the formation of the present study. The basic approaches of water conflict studies models are compared with the approaches in peace and conflict studies, and, in this regard, the degree of alignment of conventional methods in dealing with water conflicts with the developments in peace and conflict studies are investigated. The research hypothesis is that the lack of alignment of the principles of water conflict studies with recent developments in peace and conflict studies has led to fundamental weaknesses in conventional methods of dealing with water conflicts and failure to cooperate in river basins. Library resources and comparative analysis methods are used to test the research hypothesis.


Main Subjects

  1. Abdullaev, I., & Rakhmatullaev, S. (2016). Setting up the agenda for water reforms in Central Asia: Does the nexus approach help? Environmental Earth Sciences, 75(10), 870.
  2. Abrams, P. (1988). Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State (1977). Journal of Historical Sociology, 1(1), 58-89.
  3. Ahmadi, A., Zolfagharipoor, M. A., & Ebrahimi, B. (2019). Challenges and considerations of regional water market rights, a case study: Isfahan-Borkhar Plain. Iran- Water Resources Research, 14(5), 137-148. (in Persian).
  4. Aiyede, E. R. (2006). Theories in conflict management (1st ed.). National Open University of Nigeria. htpp://
  5. Alemu, S., & Dinar, A. (2000). The process of negotiation over international water disputes: The case of the Nile Basin. International Negotiation, 5(2), 331-356.
  6. Allan, J. A. (1997). “Virtual water”: A long term solution for water short Middle Eastern economies? School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London London.
  7. Allan, J. A. (2002). Hydro-Peace in the Middle East: Why no water wars?: A case study of the Jordan River Basin. SAIS Review (1989-2003), 22(2), 255-272.
  8. Allan, J. A. (2009). Nile Basin asymmetries: A closed fresh water resource, soil water potential, the political economy and Nile transboundary hydropolitics. In The Nile (pp. 749-770). Springer.
  9. Allan, J. A., & Mirumachi, N. (2010). Why negotiate? Asymmetric endowments, asymmetric power and the invisible nexus of water, trade and power that brings apparent water security. In Transboundary water management (1st ed., pp. 26-39). Routledge.
  10. Aytemiz, L. (2001). The optimal joint provision of water for irrigation and hydropower in the Euphrates River: The case of conflict between Turkey and Syria. Doctoral dissertation, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, USA.
  11. Azar, E. E. (1990). The management of protracted social conflict: Theory and cases. Dartmouth Publishing Company.
  12. Azar, E. E., & Burton, J. (Eds.). (1986). International conflict resolution: Theory and practice. Wheatsheaf Books.
  13. Azar, E. E., Jureidini, P., & McLaurin, R. (1978). Protracted social conflict; Theory and practice in the Middle East. Journal of Palestine Studies, 8(1), 41-60.
  14. Aziz-Alaoui, M. A., & Bertelle, C. (Eds.). (2009). From system complexity to emergent properties (1st ed.). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  15. Barjeste, H., Ghoreishi, S. Z., & Mianabadi, H. (2020). Nexus approach in hydropolitics of transboundary rivers. Iranian Journal of Ecohydrology, 7(3), 757-773. (in Persian).
  16. Bazrkar, M. H., Nabavi, E., Zamani, N., & Eslamian, S. (2013). System dynamic approach to hydro-politics in Hirmand transboundary river basin from sustainability perspective. International Journal of Hydrology Science and Technology, 3(4), 378.
  17. Belinskij, A. (2015). Water-Energy-Food nexus within the framework of international water law. Water, 7(10), 5396-5415.
  18. Bell, C. (2006). Human rights, peace agreements and conflict resolution: Negotiating justice in Northern Ireland. In J. Hesling & J. Mertus (Eds.), Human Rights and Conflict: Exploring Links Between Rights, Law and Peacebuilding (pp. 345–376). United States Institute of Peace.
  19. Berends, P., & Romme, G. (1999). Simulation as a research tool in management studies. European Management Journal, 17(6), 576–583.
  20. Beriker, N. (2008). Conflict resolution: The missing link between liberal international relations theory and realistic practice. In D. J.D. Sandole, S. Byrne, I. Sandole-Statoste, & J. Senehi (Eds.), Handbook of conflict analysis and resolution. Routledge.
  21. Böhmelt, T., Bernauer, T., Buhaug, H., Gleditsch, N. P., Tribaldos, T., & Wischnath, G. (2014). Demand, supply, and restraint: Determinants of domestic water conflict and cooperation. Global Environmental Change, 29, 337-348.
  22. Bond, C. J. (2014). Positive peace and sustainability in the mining context: Beyond the triple bottom line. Journal of Cleaner Production, 84, 164-173.
  23. Braddon, D. (2012). The role of economic interdependence in the origins and resolution of conflict. Revue d’économie Politique, 122(2), 299.
  24. Brahm, E. (2003). Latent conflict stage (G. Burgess & H. Burgess (Eds.)). Beyond intractability. Conflict Information Consortium; University of Colorado.
  25. Burton, J. (Ed.). (1990). Conflict: Human needs theory. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  26. Burton, J., & Dukes, F. (1990). Conflict: practices in management, settlement, and resolution (Vol. 4). Palgrave Macmillan.
  27. Byrne, S., Carter, N., & Senehi, J. (2002). Introduction to social cubism: Toward a multidimensional model. ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, 8(3).
  28. Calì, M. (2014). Trading away from conflict: Using trade to increase resilience in fragile states. The World Bank.
  29. Cernea, M. M. (2008). Compensation and benefit sharing: Why resettlement policies and practices must be reformed. Water Science and Engineering, 1(1), 89-120.
  30. Choi, J. Y. (2015). Rationality, norms and identity in international relations. International Politics, 52(1), 110-127.
  31. Clapham, C. (1998). Rwanda: The perils of peacemaking. Journal of Peace Research, 35(2), 193-210.
  32. Coase, R. H. (1960). The problem of social cost. The Journal of Law and Economics, 3, 1-44.
  33. Cuppen, E. (2012). Diversity and constructive conflict in stakeholder dialogue: Considerations for design and methods. Policy Sciences, 45(1), 23-46.
  34. Danilovic, V., & Clare, J. (2007). The Kantian liberal peace (Revisited). American Journal of Political Science, 51(2), 397–414.
  35. Daoudy, M. (2007). Benefit-sharing as a tool of conflict transformation: Applying the Inter-SEDE model to the Euphrates and Tigris River basins. The Economics of Peace and Security Journal, 2(2),
  36. Darbandsari, P., Kerachian, R., Malakpour-Estalaki, S., & Khorasani, H. (2020). An agent-based conflict resolution model for urban water resources management. Sustainable Cities and Society, 57(March), 102112.
  37. Degefu, D. M., & He, W. (2016). Water bankruptcy in the mighty Nile River Basin. Sustainable Water Resources Management, 2(1), 29-37.
  38. Dehghani Firouzabadi, S. J. (2003). Evolution of conflict and cooperation in international relations. Law of Politics, 5(8), 73-116. (in Persian).
  39. Dehghani Firouzabadi, S. J., & Jafari, H. (2022). Criticism of the ontological premises of Neo-Liberal Institutionalism. Research in Theoretical Politics, 16(30), 29-56. (in Persian).
  40. Department de Justicia. (2014). Conflict mapping. Theory and methodology. Practical application in juvenile justice. Generalitat de Catalunya.
  41. Deutsch, M. (1973). The resolution of conflict: Constructive and destructive processes. Yale University Press.
  42. Deylami, B. (2021). Improving social capital, a Solution to manage water conflicts. 8th Peace and Conflict Resolution Conference; PCRConference Proceedings 2021, 62-64.
  43. Deylami, B., Mianabadi, H., & Ghorbani, A. (2021). Dealing with uncertainty in water systems management. Iran- Water Resources Research, 17(3), 378-397. (in Persian).
  44. Dinar, A., Dinar, S., McCaffrey, S., & McKinney, D. (Eds.). (2007). Hydropolitics and international relations. In Bridges over water: understanding transboundary water conflict, negotiation and cooperation (2nd ed., pp. 138-158). world Scientific.
  45. Dinar, A., & Lee, D. J. (1999). Review of integrated approaches to river basin planning, development, and management (Policy Research Working Papers). The World Bank.
  46. Dinar, A., & Nigatu, G. S. (2013). Distributional considerations of international water resources under externality: The case of Ethiopia, Sudan and Egypt on the Blue Nile. Water Resources and Economics, 2-3, 1-16.
  47. Dinar, S. (2000). Negotiations and International Relations: A framework for hydropolitics. International Negotiation, 5(2), 375-407.
  48. du Plessis, A. (2017). Global water scarcity and possible conflicts. In Freshwater challenges of South Africa and its Upper Vaal River (pp. 45-62). Springer International Publishing.
  49. Dugan, M. A. (1996). A nested theory of conflict. A Leadership Journal: Women in Leadership - Sharing the Vision, 9-20.
  50. Eckstein, G. (2009). Water scarcity, conflict, and security in a climate change world: Challenges and opportunities for international law and policy. Wisconsin International Law Journal, 27, 409-461.
  51. Elhance, A. P. (1999). Hydropolitics in the Third World: Conflict and cooperation in international river basins. US Institute of Peace Press.
  52. Elhance, A. P. (2000). Hydropolitics: Grounds for despair, reasons for hope. International Negotiation, 5(2), 201-222.
  53. Esmaeili, A. (2016). Fair allocation of water resources in Zayandehrud basin using game theory. Master’s Thesis, Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Shahrekord. (in Persian).
  54. Essenfelder, A. H., Pérez-Blanco, C. D., & Mayer, A. S. (2018). Rationalizing systems analysis for the evaluation of adaptation strategies in complex human-water systems. Earth’s Future, 6(9), 1181-1206.
  55. Ettehad, E. (2010). Hydropolitics in Hirmand / Helmand international river basin and application of integrated water resource management. Swedish University of Agriculture Sciences.
  56. Fang, L., Hipel, K. W., & Kilgour, D. M. (1993). Interactive decision making: The graph model for conflict resolution. Wiley.
  57. Farajzade Arnesa, M. (2019). Analytical conflict mapping in the complex water system of Urmia Lake Basin. Master’s Thesis, Department of Water Resources Engineering and Management, Tarbiat Modares University. (In Persian).
  58. Farajzade Arnesa, M., Mianabadi, H., & Ali. (2020). Rethinking of concepts and approaches to confront water conflicts. Iran- Water Resources Research, 16(4), 205-244. (in persian).
  59. Faris, M. R., Al-mohseen, K. A., & Hipel, K. W. (2016). Conflict resolution in the Euphrates River dispute using the graph model for conflict resolution. Academic Journal of Science, 06(01), 295-306.
  60. Farmer, P. E. (2004). An anthropology of structural violence. Current Anthropology, 45(3), 305-325.
  61. Fisher, S., Abdi, D. I., Ludin, J., Smith, R., Williams, S., & Williams, S. (2001). Working with conflict: Skills and strategies for action. Palgrave Macmillan.
  62. Foley, D. K. (2004). Rationality and ideology in economics. Social Research: An International Quarterly, 71, 329-342.
  63. Friedman, M. (1953). Essays in positive economics (p. 43). The University of Chicago Press.
  64. Gallo, G. (2013). Conflict theory, complexity and systems approach. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 30(2), 156-175.
  65. Galtung, J. (1979). The basic needs approach. University of Oslo. Basic Needs Approach.pdf
  66. Galtung, J. (1990). Cultural violence. Journal of Peace Research, 27(3), 291-305.
  67. Galtung, J. (1996a). Peace and conflict, development and civilization. London: SAGE Publications.
  68. Galtung, J. (1996b). Peace by peaceful means: Peace and conflict, development and civilization (1st ed.). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  69. Galtung, J. (2004). Transcend and transform: An introduction to conflict work. Pluto Press.
  70. Galtung, J. (2009). Theories of conflict: Definitions, dimensions, negations, formations. Transcend.
  71. Geressu, R. T., & Harou, J. J. (2015). Screening reservoir systems by considering the efficient trade-offs-informing infrastructure investment decisions on the Blue Nile. Environmental Research Letters, 10(12), 125008.
  72. Ghasemian, A. (2014). Analysis of Zayandehrud water conflict in Isfahan using game theory. Master’s Thesis, Faculty of Environment, University of Tehran. (in Persian).
  73. Ghorbani Nezhad, R., Hafeznia, M. R., Ahmadypour, Z., & Ghavam, A. (2014). The study of the conflict in the theories of international relations and geopolitics. Strategy, 23(70), 265-291. (in Persian).
  74. Ghoreishi, S. Z., Mianabadi, H., & Mousavi Shafaee, S. M. (2019). The role of power in water diplomacy. Iran- Water Resources Research, 15(2), 242-264. (in Persian).
  75. Grey, D., & Sadoff, C. W. (2003). Beyond the river: The benefits of cooperation on international rivers. Water Science and Technology, 47(6), 91-96.
  76. Gulati, R., & Singh, H. (1998). The architecture of cooperation: Managing coordination costs and appropriation concerns in strategic alliances. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43(4), 781-814.
  77. Gutiérrez, W. A., & Mila, A. L. (2007). A rapid technique for determination of races of phytophthora nicotianae on Tobacco. Plant Disease, 91(8), 985-989.
  78. Hackett, S., & Dissanayake, S. T. M. (2014). Environmental and natural resources economics: Theory, policy, and the sustainable society. Routledge.
  79. Haddadin, M. J. (2001). Water scarcity impacts and potential conflicts in the MENA region. Water International, 26(4), 460-470.
  80. Hamidi, M., Liao, H., & Szidarovszky, F. (2016). Non-cooperative and cooperative game-theoretic models for usage-based lease contracts. European Journal of Operational Research, 255(1), 163-174.
  81. Heide, J. B. (1994). Interorganizational governance in marketing channels. Journal of Marketing, 58(1), 71.
  82. Herrero, C., & Villar, A. (2001). The three musketeers: four classical solutions to bankruptcy problems. Mathematical Social Sciences, 42(3), 307-328.
  83. Heywood, A. (2011). Global politics (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan.
  84. Hirshleifer, J. (1989). Conflict and settlement. In Game theory (pp. 86–94). Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  85. Hoekstra, A. Y., & Hung, P. . (2002). Virtual water trade. A quantification of virtual water flows between nations in relation to international crop trade (No. 11; Value of Water Research Report Series). IHE Delft Institute for Water Education.
  86. Hussein, A. F. F., & Al-Mamary, Y. H. S. (2019). Conflicts: their types, and their negative and positive effects on organizations. International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research, 8(8), 10-13.
  87. Ide, T., & Detges, A. (2018). International Water Cooperation and Environmental Peacemaking. Global Environmental Politics, 18(4), 63-84.
  88. İlhan, A. (2009). Social movements in sustainability transitions (identity, social learning & power in the Spanish and Turkish water domains). Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona.
  89. Isard, W. (1992). Understanding conflict and the science of peace. Blackwell.
  90. Islam, S., & Susskind, L. (2018). Using complexity science and negotiation theory to resolve boundary-crossing water issues. Journal of Hydrology, 562(May), 589-598.
  91. Jalili Kamju, S. P., & Khochiani, R. (2020). Application of the bankruptcy theory and conflicting claims on water resources allocation of Zayanderud. Journal of Research in Economic Modeling, 10(39), 45-80. (in Persian).
  92. Jalili Kamju, S. P., & Khoshakhlagh, R. (2016). Using the game theory in optimal allocation of water in Zayandehrud. Journal of Applied Economics Studies in Iran, 5(18), 53-80. (in Persian).
  93. Johnson, D. P. (2008). Social exchange and rational choice at the micro level: Looking out for #1. In Contemporary Sociological Theory (pp. 165-193). Springer New York.
  94. Jones, B. T., & Metzger, S. K. (2016). Conflict dynamics. In Global encyclopedia of public administration, public policy, and governance (pp. 1-8). Springer International Publishing.
  95. Kadera, K. M., Crescenzi, M., & Zinnes, D. A. (2020). Richardson and the study of dynamic conflict processes. In N. P. Gleditsch (Ed.), Lewis Fry Richardson: His intellectual legacy and influence in the social sciences (pp. 45-56). Springer Nature.
  96. Karim, S. (2020). Transboundary water cooperation between Bangladesh and India in the Ganges River Basin: Exploring a benefit-sharing approach. Master thesis in Sustainable Development, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Universitet, Sweden.
  97. Kegley, C. W., & Raymond, G. A. (1982). Alliance norms and war: A new piece in an old puzzle. International Studies Quarterly, 26(4), 572.
  98. Keith, B., Enos, J., Garlick, C. B., Simmons, G., Copeland, D., & Cortizo, M. (2013). Limits to population growth and water resource adequacy in the Nile River Basin, 1994-2100. Proceedings of the 31st International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, July.
  99. Keohane, R. O., & Martin, L. L. (1995). The promise of institutionalist theory. International Security, 20(1), 39-51.
  100. Keohane, R. O., & Nye, J. S. (2011). Power and interdependence (4th ed.). Pearson.
  101. Keshk, O. M. G., Pollins, B. M., & Reuveny, R. (2004). Trade still follows the flag: The primacy of politics in a simultaneous model of interdependence and armed conflict. The Journal of Politics, 66(4), 1155-1179.
  102. Kibaroglu, A., & Gürsoy, S. I. (2015). Water–energy–food nexus in a transboundary context: the Euphrates–Tigris River Basin as a case study. Water International, 40(5-6), 824-838.
  103. Kriesberg, L. (1997). The development of the conflict resolution field. In W. I. Zartman & L. J. Rasmussen (Eds.), Peacemaking in international conflict: Methods and techniques (pp. 51-77). United States Institute of Peace Press.
  104. Kriesberg, L., Northrup, T. A., & Thorson, S. J. (Eds.). (1989). Intractable conflicts and their transformation (1st ). Syracuse University Press.
  105. Lederach, J. P. (1995). Preparing for peace: Conflict transformation across cultures. Syracuse University Press.
  106. Lederach, J. P. (1997). Building peace: sustainable reconciliation in divided societies. United States Institute of Peace Press.
  107. Lederach, J. P. (1998). Beyond violence: Building sustainable peace. In E. Weiner (Ed.), The handbook of interethnic coexistence. Abraham Fund Publication.
  108. Lederach, J. P. (2003). Little book of conflict transformation: Clear articulation of the guiding principles by a pioneer in the field (Original). Good Books.
  109. Loadenthal, M. (2018). Structural conflict, systemic violence, and peace: A guided reading. In C. P. Peterson, W. M. Knoblauch, & M. Loadenthal (Eds.), The Routledge history of world peace since 1750 (pp. 70-84). Routledge.
  110. Loucks, D. P., & van Beek, E. (2017). Water resource systems planning and management: An introduction to methods, models, and applications. Springer International Publishing.
  111. Lyamouri-Bajja, N., Genneby, N., Markosyan, R., & Ohana, Y. (2002). Youth transforming conflict. In Y. Ohana (Ed.), Council of Euroupe Publishing.
  112. Mackinlay, J., & Chopra, J. (1992). Second generation multinational operations. The Washington Quarterly, 15(3), 113-131.
  113. Madani, K. (2010). Game theory and water resources. Journal of Hydrology, 381(3-4), 225-238.
  114. Madani, K., & Lund, J. R. (2011). A Monte-Carlo game theoretic approach for multi-criteria decision making under uncertainty. Advances in Water Resources, 34(5), 607-616.
  115. Madani, K., Rheinheimer, D., Elimam, L., & Connell-Buck, C. (2011). A game theory approach to understanding the Nile River Basin conflict. In K. M. Persson (Ed.), “A Water Resource” Festschrift in honor of Professor Lars Bengtsson (Issue January, pp. 97-114). Lund University.
  116. Malcolm, D. G. (1958). System simulation-a fundamental tool for industrial engineering. Journal of Industrial Engineering, 9(177), 95.
  117. Malik, T. (2019). Pak-Afghan water issue: A case for benefit-sharing. Policy Perspectives, 16(1), 77.
  118. Mansfield, E. D., & Pollins, B. M. (2001). The study of interdependence and conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 45(6), 834-859.
  119. Mansfield, E. D., & Pollins, B. M. (2003). Interdependence and conflict: An introduction. In E. D. Mansfield & L. L. Martin (Eds.), Economic interdependence and international conflict: new perspectives on an enduring debate (pp. 1-28). University of Michigan Press.
  120. Maoz, Z. (2009). The effects of strategic and economic interdependence on international conflict across levels of analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 53(1), 223-240.
  121. Matousek, J., & Gärtner, B. (2007). Understanding and using linear programming (1st ed.). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  122. McDonald, P. J. (2004). Peace through trade or free trade? The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48(4), 547-572.
  123. McMillan, S. M. (1997). Interdependence and conflict. Mershon International Studies Review, 41(1), 33.
  124. Merchant, C. (2015). Autonomous nature (1st ed.). Routledge.
  125. Miall, H. (2004). Conflict transformation: A multi-dimensional task. In A. Austin, M. Fischer, & N. Ropers (Eds.), Transforming ethnopolitical conflict (pp. 67-89). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
  126. Mianabadi, H. (2016). Hydropolitics and conflict management in transboundary river basins [Doctoral dissertation, Delft University of Technology, Netherland].
  127. Mianabadi, H., Mostert, E., & van de Giesen, N. (2015). Trans-boundary river basin management: Factors influencing the success or failure of international agreements. In Conflict Resolution in Water Resources and Environmental Management (pp. 133-143). Springer International Publishing.
  128. Mianabadi, H., Mostert, E., Zarghami, M., & van de Giesen, N. (2014). A new bankruptcy method for conflict resolution in water resources allocation. Journal of Environmental Management, 144, 152-159.
  129. Mianabadi, H., Mostert, E., Zarghami, M., & Van de Giesen, N. (2013). Transboundary water resources allocation using bankruptcy theory; Case study of Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Transboundary Water Management across Borders and Interfaces: Present and Future Challenges, March.
  130. Michel, D. (2020). Water conflict pathways and peacebuilding strategies. In Peace Works (Issue 164).
  131. Mirhashemi Dehkordi, S. S., Jafari, M., & Mianabadi, H. (2021b). The new generations to deal with water conflict. STREAMS: Transformative Environmental Humanities.
  132. Mirhashemi Dehkordi, S. S., & Mianabadi, H. (2021). Game theory and dealing with water conflict. PCRConference Proceedings 2021, 44-44.
  133. Mirhashemi Dehkordi, S. S., Mianabadi, H., & Hajiani, E. (2021a). Social identity and the construction of conflicts in water resource system. Iran-Water Resources Research, 17(3), 198-214. (In Persian).
  134. Mirhashemi Dehkordi, S. S., Mianabadi, H., Hajiani, E., & Dehghani Firouzabadi, S. J. (2022). Blue peace: from idea to reality. Journal of Water and Irrigation Management, 11(4), 967-986. (in Persian).
  135. Montazar, A. A., Zadbagher, E., & Heydari, N. (2009). An assessment model for the virtual water of irrigation networks using analytical hierarchy process. Journal of Water and Soil, 23(4), 77-89. (in Persian).
  136. Mosello, B. (2008). Water in Central Asia: A prospect of conflict or cooperation? Journal of Public & International Affairs, 19(1), 151-174.
  137. Müller, H. J., & Dieng, R. (Eds.). (2000). Computational conflicts. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  138. Myerson, R. B. (1997). Game theory: Analysis of conflict. Harvard university press.
  139. Naghdi, S., Bozorg-Haddad, O., Khorsandi, M., & Chu, X. (2021). Multi-objective optimization for allocation of surface water and groundwater resources. Science of The Total Environment, 776, 146026.
  140. Nagheeby, M. (2021). Anarchy and the law of international watercourses: Unpacking the role of equitable and reasonable utilisation principle in the pursuit of water conflict transformation [Diploma thesis, Northumbria University].
  141. Nigatu, G. S., & Dinar, A. (2011). Modeling efficiency, equity and externality in the Eastern Nile River basin.
  142. Oliva, F., & Charbonnier, L. (2016). Conflict analysis handbook: A field and headquarter guide to conflict assessments. United Nations System Staff College.
  143. Oneal, J. R., & Russett, B. (1999). The Kantian peace: The pacific benefits of democracy, interdependence, and international organizations, 1885–1992. World Politics, 52(1), 1-37.
  144. Oneal, J. R., & Russett, B. M. (1997). The classical liberals were right: Democracy, interdependence, and conflict, 1950-1985. International Studies Quarterly, 41(2), 267-294.
  145. Parks, L. (2020). Benefit-sharing in environmental governance: Local experiences of a global concept (1st ed.). Routledge.
  146. Parlevliet, M. (2009). Rethinking conflict transformation from a human rights perspective (Issue 9). Berghof Research Center for Constructive Conflict Management.
  147. Petersen-Perlman, J. D., Veilleux, J. C., & Wolf, A. T. (2017). International water conflict and cooperation: Challenges and opportunities. Water International, 42(2), 105-120.
  148. Philips, D., & Woodhouse, M. (2009). Transboundary benefit sharing framework: Training manual (Version 1). Prepared for Benefit Sharing Training Workshop.
  149. Pouligny, B. (2006). Peacekeeping seen from below: UN missions and local people. Hurst.
  150. Pourkazemi, M. H., & Vali, M. (2014). Application of game theory for water resources management between industry and agriculture sectors in Isfahan Province (The case of: Zayande-Rud River). The Journal of Economic Modeling Research, 4(15), 1-42. (in Persian).
  151. Pruitt, D. G., Rubin, J. Z., & Kim, S. H. (2003). Social conflict: Escalation, stalemate, and settlement (3rd ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
  152. Rapoport, A. (Ed.). (1974). Game theory as a theory of a conflict resolution (Vol. 2). Springer Netherlands.
  153. Reed, P. M., & Kasprzyk, J. (2009). Water resources management: The myth, the wicked, and the future. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 135(6), 411-413.
  154. Reimer, L. E., Schmitz, C. L., Janke, E. M., Askerov, A., Strahl, B. T., & Matyók, T. G. (2015). Transformative change: An introduction to peace and conflict studies. Lexington Books.
  155. Richmond, O. P. (2001). A genealogy of peacemaking: The creation and re-creation of order. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 26(3), 317-348.
  156. Richmond, O. P. (2002). Maintaining order, making peace. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  157. Richmond, O. P. (Ed.). (2010). Palgrave advances in peacebuilding. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
  158. Robbins, S. P. (1978). “Conflict management” and “conflict resolution” are not synonymous terms. California Management Review, 21(2), 67-75.
  159. Rogers, P. P., & Fiering, M. B. (1986). Use of systems analysis in water management. Water Resources Research, 22(9S), 146S-158S.
  160. Rosenberg, D. E., & Madani, K. (2014). Water resources systems analysis: A bright past and a challenging but promising future. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 140(4), 407-409.
  161. Rothman, J. (Ed.). (2012). From identity-based conflict to identity-based cooperation. Springer New York.
  162. Rubenstein, R. E. (2017). Resolving structural conflicts. Routledge.
  163. Rummel, R. J. (1981). Understanding conflict and war: vol 5: the just peace. In SAGE Publications.
  164. Salmoral, G., Schaap, N. C. E., Walschebauer, J., & Alhajaj, A. (2019). Water diplomacy and nexus governance in a transboundary context: In the search for complementarities. Science of The Total Environment, 690, 85-96.
  165. Sandole, D. (1998). A comprehensive mapping of conflict and conflict Resolution: A three pillar approach. Peace and Conflict Studies, 5(2), 1-30.
  166. Sandole, D., Byrne, S., Sandole-Staroste, I., & Senehi, J. (2009). Handbook of conflict analysis and resolution. Choice Reviews Online, 46(12), 46-7056-46-7056.
  167. Satari Ghahfarokhi, M. (2011). Modeling of agricultural water market in Zayandehrud River Basin. Master’s Thesis, Department of Agriculture, Zabol University. (in Persian).
  168. Schmid, H. (1968). Peace research and politics. Journal of Peace Research, 5(3), 217-232.
  169. Schmidt, B. (2002). On the history and historiography of international relations. In W. Carlsnaes, T. Risse, & B. A. Simmons (Eds.), Handbook of international relations (pp. 3-22). SAGE Publications Ltd.
  170. Shearer, D. (1997). Exploring the limits of consent: Conflict resolution in Sierra Leone. Millennium, 26(3), 845-860.
  171. Shiraev, E., & Zubok, V. (2019). International relations (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press.
  172. Sidło, K. W. (2021). What does the literature tell us on the relationship between economic interdependence and conflict management? An overview with a focus on the MENA Region (No. 1483; ERF Working Papares Series, Issue 1483).
  173. Soliev, I., & Theesfeld, I. (2020). Benefit sharing for solving transboundary commons dilemma in Central Asia. International Journal of the Commons, 14(1), 61-77.
  174. Soliev, I., Wegerich, K., & Kazbekov, J. (2015). The costs of benefit sharing: Historical and institutional analysis of shared water development in the Ferghana Valley, the Syr Darya Basin. Water, 7(12), 2728-2752.
  175. Soubeyran, A., & Tomini, A. (2012). Water shortages and conflict. Revue d’Economie Politique, 122(2), 279-297.
  176. Sreenath, S. N., Vali, A. M., & Susiarjo, G. (2002). The Nile River problematique: An integrated look at the future of Egypt and Ethiopia. Water International, 27(4), 517-531.
  177. Susskind, L., & Islam, S. (2012). Water Diplomacy: Creating value and building trust in transboundary water negotiations. Science and Diplomacy, 1(3).
  178. Swain, A. (2011). Challenges for water sharing in the Nile Basin: Changing geo-politics and changing climate. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 56(4), 687-702.
  179. Syll, L. P. (2018). Why game theory never will be anything but a footnote in the history of social science. Real-World Economics Review, 83, 45-64.
  180. Tawfik, R. (2019). Beyond the river: Elite perceptions and regional cooperation in the Eastern Nile Basin. Water Alternatives, 12(2), 655-675.
  181. Tayia, A. (2019). Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: Substitutes or complements. Water, 11(7), 1337.
  182. Tayia, A., & Madani, K. (2017). Resilient transboundary water management institutions. World Environmental and Water Resources Congress 2017, 618-627.
  183. The law Reform Commission. (2008). Alternative dispute resolution (LRC CP 50-2008).
  184. Tietenberg, T., & Lewis, L. (2012). Environmental and natural resource economics. Pearson Education, Inc.
  185. Timmerman, J. G., Pahl-Wostl, C., & Möltgen, J. (2015). The adaptiveness of IWRM: Analysing european IWRM research (1st, Vol. 7, Issue 0). IWA Publishing.
  186. Turner, J. H. (2005). Sociology. Pearson.
  187. Turner, R. S. (2008). Neo-liberal ideology: History, concepts and policies. Edinburgh University Press.