Water resources planning in Karkheh basin according to the agricultural GDP, equality in the distribution of agricultural and the supplying of environmental requirement

Document Type : Research Paper


1 1. Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

2 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

4 M.Sc. Graduate, Department of Water Resources Engineering, Faculty of Civil, Water and Environmental Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


In the study of water resources development projects, in addition to technical issues, economic, social and environmental aspects should also be considered. Therefore, the use of simulation model is the key to develop a reasonable strategy and to decide on the future of water resources in each region. To simulate Karkheh basin, MODSIM model is used as a decision support system. Two main types of policies are investigated, one related to the pattern of water consumption in terms of minimum, medium and maximum consumption, and the other related to how to develop basin dams and add them to the system. The indicators used to study each of the scenarios include the area under cultivation, the GDP from agricultural sector, the environmental flow to maintain the Hoor al-Azim wetland and, most importantly, the Williamson coefficient, which examines the issue of reducing economic inequality and equilibrium in the distribution of agricultural income among the provinces of the Karkheh basin. Finally, using the multi-criteria decision making methods (MCDM) called AHP and ANP and also the MCDM software Super Decision, the results are compared and the policies ranked. The results show that in both AHP and ANP methods, scenarios including the development of the under study dams and minimal water consumption (which is an ideal scenario) and then the scenario of development of under study and construction dams in medium water consumption, respectively, are the best policies for planning in the basin based on the considered criteria.


Main Subjects

Ahadnejad Reveshty, M., Mousavi, M.N., Mohammadi Hamidi, S., & Waysian, M. (2016) Investigating and analyzing social justice in terms of accessibility to municipal services. Journal of Geography and Urban Space Development, 3(1), 33-51 (In Persian).
Alamanos, A., Mylopoulos, N., Loukas, A., & Gaitanaros, D. (2018). An integrated multicriteria analysis tool for evaluating water resource management strategies. Water, 10(12), 1795.
Babaeian, F., Bagheri, A., & Rafieian, M. (2016). Vulnerability analysis of water resources systems to water scarcity based on a water accounting framework (case study: Rafsanjan study area). Iran-Water Resources Research, 12(1), 1-17.  (In Persian)
Cuaresma, J. C., Doppelhofer, G., & Feldkircher, M. (2014). The determinants of economic growth in European regions. Regional Studies, 48(1), 44-67.
Díez-Minguela, A., & Llopis, M.T.S. (2020). Comparing different estimation methodologies of regional GDPs in Latin American countries. In Time and Space (pp. 17-40). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
D’Onofrio, A., Minetti, R., & Murro, P. (2019). Banking development, socioeconomic structure and income inequality. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 157, 428-451.
Ebad Ardestani, M., Sharifi Teshnizi, E., Babakhani, P., Mahdad, M., & Golian, M. (2020). An optimal management approach for agricultural water supply in accordance with sustainable development criteria using MCDM (TOPSIS) (Case study of Poldasht catchment in West Azerbaijan Province-Iran). Journal of Applied Water Engineering and Research, 8(2), 88-107.
Gluschenko, K. (2018). Measuring regional inequality: to weight or not to weight?. Spatial Economic Analysis, 13(1), 36-59.
Golfam, P., Ashofteh, P.S., Rajaee, T., & Chu, X. (2019). Prioritization of water allocation for adaptation to climate change using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM). Water Resources Management, 33(10), 3401-3416.
Hatamkhani, A., & Moridi, A. (2019). Multi-objective optimization of hydropower and agricultural development at river basin scale. Water Resources Management, 33(13), 4431-4450.
Hatamkhani, A., & Moridi, A. (2021). Optimal Development of Agricultural Sectors in the Basin Based on Economic Efficiency and Social Equality. Water Resources Management, 35(3), 917-932.
Hosnavi Atashgah, M., Yasi, M., & Amiri Takaldani, E. (2019). Decision Making Pattern in Identifying and Ranking Effective Criteria in Inter-Basin Water Transfer Projects Based on Network Analysis Process and Analytical Hierarchy Process. Iran-Water Resources Research, 15(4), 299-313.
Luo, H., & Zhao, S. (2021). Impacts of high-speed rail on the inequality of intercity accessibility: A case study of Liaoning Province, China. Journal of Transport Geography, 90, 102920.
Mianabadi, H., & Afshar, A. (2008). Multi-attribute decision-making to rank urban water supply schemes. Journal of Water and Wastewater, 19(2), 34-45 (In Persian)
Portnov, B.A., & Felsenstein, D. (2010). On the suitability of income inequality measures for regional analysis: Some evidence from simulation analysis and bootstrapping tests. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 44(4), 212-219.
Rousta, B.A., & Araghinejad, S. (2015). Development of a multi criteria decision making tool for a water resources decision support system. Water Resources Management, 29(15), 5713-5727.
Shahreza, F., Moridi, A., & Mousavi Nadoushani, S. (2017). Estimating Stationary Inflow Time Series for Planning Water Resources at the Basin Level (Case Study: Karkheh Watershed). Iran-Water Resources Research, 13(4), 168-173. (In Persian)
Sikder, A., & Salehin, M. (2015). Multi-criteria decision making methods for rural water supply: a case study from Bangladesh. Water Policy, 17(6), 1209-1223.
Toosi, S. R., & Samani, J. V. (2012). Evaluating water transfer projects using analytic network process (ANP). Water Resources Management, 26(7), 1999-2014.
Williamson, J. G. (1965). Regional inequality and the process of national development: a description of the patterns. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 13(4, Part 2), 1-84.
Yilmaz, B., & Harmancioglu, N. (2010). Multi-criteria decision making for water resource management: a case study of the Gediz River Basin, Turkey. Water SA, 36(5).
Yu, B. (2021). Urban spatial structure and total-factor energy efficiency in Chinese provinces. Ecological Indicators, 126, 107662.
Zamani, R., Ali, A.M.A., & Roozbahani, A. (2020). Evaluation of adaptation scenarios for climate change impacts on agricultural water allocation using Fuzzy MCDM methods. Water Resources Management, 34(3), 1093-1110.
Zolfaghary, P., Zakerinia, M., & Kazemi, H. (2021). A model for the use of urban treated wastewater in agriculture using multiple criteria decisions making (MCDM) and geographic information system (GIS). Agricultural Water Management, 243, 106490.