Evaluation of the effects of nitrogen and alternate furrow irrigation method on water use efficiency in cultivation of Quinoa plant

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor, Department of Water Science and Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

3 B.Sc. Graduated, Department of Desert and Arid Areas Management, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environment, Ferdowsi university of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


To investigate the effects of furrow irrigation and nitrogen fertilizer on yield and yield components of Quinoa, an experiment was conducted as a split-plot based on a randomized complete block design with three replications in 2018 at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Treatments included three irrigation methods (furrow irrigation (FI), fixed alternate furrow irrigation (FAFI), and variable alternate furrow irrigation (VAFI)) and three-level of nitrogen fertilizing (50, 100, and 200 Kg/ha). The yield of quinoa was increased +62.5 and +70.8 percent under the use of 100 and 200 Kg/ha nitrogen fertilizer (compared to 50 Kg/ha using nitrogen fertilizer). The plant height was decreased -9.8 and -9.3 percent under using FAFI and VAFI, respectively. The result showed that the lowest and the highest of grain yield with 14.3 g and 33.4 g in FAFI50 and VAFI200, respectively. Generally, the use of variable alternative furrow irrigation + 200 Kg/ha nitrogen (VAFI200) was decreased irrigation water consumption and increasing water use efficiency, therefore with this treatment in Mashhad climatic conditions can be produced a reliable yield.


Main Subjects

  1. Ahmadi, S.H., Andersen, M.N., Plauborg, F., Poulsen, R.T., Jensen, C.R., Sepaskhah, A.R., & Hansen, S. (2010). Effects of irrigation strategies and soils on field grown potatoes: Gas exchange and xylem [ABA]. Agricultural Water Management, 97, 1486-1494.
  2. Akbai Nodehi, D. (2014). The effect of different levels of drought stress and nitrogen fertilizer on some characteristics of strawberry plants (Fragaria ananassa Duch. cv. selva). Water and Irrigation Management, 4(1), 59-72. (In Persian).
  3. Akbari Nodehi, D. (2015). Effect of furrow irrigation methods and deficit irrigation on yield and water use efficiency of maize in mazandaran. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 18(4), 245-255. (In Persian).
  4. Alizadeh-zouj, F. (2016). Quinoa yield response to deficit irrigation and nitrogen levels, in presence of saline shallow groundwater. International Quinoa Conference 2016: Quinoa for Future Food and Nutrition Security in Marginal Environments, 6-8 December, Dubai. 1-18.
  5. Allen, R.G., Pereira, L.S., Raes, D., & Smith, M. (1998). Crop evapotranspiration Guidelines for computing crop water requirements. FAO Irrigation and drainage paper 56. Fao, Rome, 300(9), D05109.
  6. Alvar-Beltrán, J., Dao, A., Marta, A. D., Saturnin, C., Casini, P., Sanou, J., & Orlandini, S. (2019a). Effect of drought, nitrogen fertilization, temperature, and photoperiodicity on quinoa plant growth and development in the sahel. Agronomy, 9(10), 607.‏
  7. Alvar-Beltrán, J., Saturnin, C., Dao, A., Dalla Marta, A., Sanou, J., & Orlandini, S. (2019b). Effect of drought and nitrogen fertilisation on quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under field conditions in Burkina Faso. Italian Journal of Agrometereology, 1, 33-43.‏
  8. Cakir, R. (2004). Effect of water stress at different development stages on vegetative and reproductive growth of corn. Field Crops Research, 89(1), 1-16.
  9. Çolak, Y. B., Yazar, A., Alghory, A., & Tekin, S. (2020). Evaluation of crop water stress index and leaf water potential for differentially irrigated quinoa with surface and subsurface drip systems. Irrigation Science, 38(4), 1-20.‏
  10. Davies W.J., Bacon M.A., Thompson D.S., Sobeih W., & Rodriguez L.G. (2000). Regulation of leaf and fruit growth in plants growing in drying soil: exploitation of the plant’s chemical signaling system and hydraulic architecture to increase the efficiency of water use in agriculture. Journal of Experimental Botany, 51, 1617-1626.
  11. Emdad, M.R., & Samamipour, M. (2017). Variation of advance power function coefficients and water advance time in alternate furrow irrigation management. Water and Irrigation Management, 7(2), 349-365. (In Persian).
  12. Geren, H. (2015). Effects of different nitrogen levels on the grain yield and some yield components of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 20(1), 59-64.‏
  13. Gholam Hosseini, M., Ghalavand, A., & Jamshidi, A. (2008). The effect of irrigation regimes and fertilizer treatments on grain yield and elements concentration in leaf and grain of sunflower. Research and reconstruction in agronomy and horticulture, 21(2), 91-100. (In Persian).
  14. Ghrab, M., Gargouri, K., Bentaher, H., Chartzoulakisc, K., Ayadia, M., Mimound, M.B., Masmoudid, M.M., Mechliad, N.B., & Psarrasc, G. (2013). Water relations and yield of olive tree (cv. Chemlali) in response to partial root-zone drying (PRD) irrigation technique and salinity under arid climate. Agricultural Water Management, 123, 1-11.
  15. Jamali, S., Sharifan, H., & Sajadi, F. (2018). The effect of different seawater and deficit irrigation regimes on leaf properties of quinoa. Water and Irrigation Management, 8(2), 177-191. (In Persian).
  16. Kang, S., Liang, Z., Pan, Y., Shi, P., & Zhang, J. (2000). Alternate furrow irrigation for maize production in an arid area. Agricultural Water Management, 45(3), 267-274.
  17. Kansomjet, P., Thobunluepop, P., Lertmongkol, S., Sarobol, E., Kaewsuwan, P., Junhaeng, P., Pipattanawong, N., & Ivan, M.T. (2017). Response of physiological characteristics, seed yield and seed quality of quinoa under difference of nitrogen fertilizer management. American Journal of Plant Physiology, 12, 20-27.‏
  18. Kazemi poshtmasari, H., Pirdashti, H.A., Bahmanyar, M.A., & Nasiri, M. (2008). Investigating nitrogen remobilization in different rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars in different nitrogen fertilizer rates and top dressed. Journal of crop production, 1(3), 1-16. (In Persian).
  19. Limaa, R.S.N., Assis Figueiredoa, F.A.M.M., Martinsa, A.O., Deusa, B.C.S., Ferraza, T.M., Assis Gomesa, M.M., Sousab, E.F., Glennc, D.M., & Campostrini, E. (2015). Partial rootzone drying (PRD) and regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) effects on stomatal conductance, growth, photosynthetic capacity and water-use efficiency of papaya. Scientia Horticulturae, 183, 13-22.
  20. Molavi, H., Mohammadi, M., & Liaghat, A. (2011). Effect of full irrigation and alternative furrow irrigation on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of tomato (Super Strain B). Water and Soil Science, 21(3), 115-126. (In Persian).
  21. Pandey, R. K., Marienville, J.W., & Adam, A. (2000). Deficit irrigation and nitrogen effect on maize in a Sahelian environment I: Grain yield components. Agricultural Water Management, 46, 1-27.
  22. Parvizi, H., Sepaskhah, A.R., & Ahmadi, S.H. (2014). Effect of drip irrigation and fertilizer regimes on fruit yields and water productivity of a pomegranate (Punica granatum (L.) cv. Rabab) orchard. Agricultural Water Management, 146, 45-56.
  23. Poshtdar, A., Mashhadie, A. R. A., Moradi, F., Siadat, S. A., & Bakhshandeh, A. (2016). Effect of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer on yield and water and nitrogen use efficiency of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.). Iranian Journal of Crop Sciences18(1), 14-31.‏ (In Persian).
  24. Qadir, M. (2003). Agricultural water management in water starved countries: Challenges and opportunities. Agricultural Water Management, 62, 165-185.
  25. Romero, P., Gil-Munoza, R., Fernández-Fernández, I., Del Amorb, F., Martínez-Cutillasa, A., & García-García, J. (2015). Improvement of yield and grape and wine composition in field-grown monastrell grapevines by partial root zone irrigation, in comparison with regulated deficit irrigation. Agricultural Water Management, 149, 55-73.
  26. Salim, S.A., Hadeethi, I.K.H., & Hadithi, R.A.G.M. (2020). Water stress on different growing stage for Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa willd) and its influence on water requirement and yield. Iraqi Journal of Agriculture Sciences, 51(3), 953-966.
  27. Samsamipoor, M., Afrasiab, P., Emdad, M., Delbari, M., & Karandish, F. (2015). Evaluation of corn forage yield and yield components under alternate furrow irrigation. Iranian Journal of Soil and Water Research, 46(1), 11-1. (In Persian).
  28. Sarker, K.K., Akanda, M.A., Biswas, S.H., Roy, D.K., Khatun, A., & Goftar, M.A. (2016). Field performance of alternate wetting and drying furrow irrigation on tomato crop growth, yield, water use efficiency, quality and profitability. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(10), 2380-2392.
  29. Sepaskhah A.R., & Ahmadi S.H. (2010). A review on partial root-zone drying irrigation. International Journal of Plant Production, 4 (4), 241-258.
  30. Sepaskhah, A.R., & Parand, A. R. (2006). Effects of alternate furrow irrigation with supplemental every furrow irrigation at different growth stage of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Production Science, 9, 415-421.
  31. Shahnazari, A., Liu, F., Andersen, M.N., Jacobsen, S.E., & Jensen, C.R. (2007). Effects of partial root-zone drying on yield, tuber size and water use efficiency in potato under field conditions. Field Crops Research, 100, 117-124.
  32. Sheinidashtegol A, Kashkouli H, Naseri A, & Boromandnasab S. (2009). Effects of every-other furrow irrigation on water use efficiency and sugarcane characteristics in southern ahvaz sugarcane fields. Journal of Water and Soil Science, 13(1), 45-57. (In Persian).
  33. Singh, J., & Patel, A. L. (1996). Water statues, gaseous exchange, proline accumulation and yield of wheat in response to water stress. Annual of Biology Ludhiana, 12, 77-81.
  34. Talebnejad, R., & Sepaskhah, A. (2015). Effect of deficit irrigation and different saline groundwater depths on onyield and water productivity of quinoa. Agricultural Water Management, 159, 225-238.
  35. Topak, R., Acar, B., Uyanoz, R., & Ceyhan, E. 2016. Performance of partial root-zone drip irrigation for sugar beet production in a semi-arid area. Agricultural Water Management, 176, 180-190.