Effect of water stress and superabsorbent on soil and corn crop

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Associated, Soil and Water Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension

2 Department of Water Engineering and Sciences, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran


In this study, the effect of water stress and different levels of superabsorbent on corn variety of SC704 in a farm with sandy soil, in Hamidiyeh region and in spring and summer cultivation was evaluated. Experimental design was according to split plot method in a randomized block. It was done with 12 treatments and 3 replications. In this study, 3 different depths of irrigation were considered as the main treatment including I1, I2, I3 as 100, 75 and 50 percent of water requirement of plant respectively and different levels of superabsorbent were used as secondary treatment including S0, S1, S2 and S3, equal to 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45 gr m-2 respectively. This study was included 12 treatments and 3 replications and totally 36 plots were tested. So, 36 experimental basins were evaluated. According to the results, independent effect of irrigation and superabsorbent treatments at 1% level on grain yield of SC704 corn was significant. The maximum and the minimum of grain yield were 5.89 and 2.06 t/ha related to the complete irrigation (I1) and severe drought stress (I3) respectively. In addition, independent effect of irrigation treatments and superabsorbent and their reciprocal effects at 1% level on water use efficiency of SC704 corn was significant. The maximum and the minimum of water use efficiency were 9.66 and 6.6 kg/ha.mm related to the complete irrigation (I1) and severe drought stress (I3) respectively. Besides, the results showed that by increasing of superabsorbent levels, the mean suction amount of plant root zone was decreased.


  1. امام ی. (1386) زراعت غلات. انتشارت دانشگاه شیراز، 200 صفحه.
  2. احرار م.، دلشاد م. و بابالار م. (1388) بهبود کارایی مصرف آب و کود در کشت بدون خاک خیار گلخانه‌ای با استفاده از پیوند و پلیمرهای ابرجاذب. علوم باغبانی (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی). 23(1): 77-69.
  3. خادم س.ع.، رمرودی م.، گلوی م. و روستا م.ج. (1390) تأثیر تنش خشکی و کاربرد نسبت‌های مختلف کود دامی و پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای. علوم گیاهان زراعی ایران. 42(1): 123-115.
  4. سنچولی ن. (1386) بررسی نسبت‌های مختلف کود دامی و شیمیایی و مخلوط آن‌ها بر خصوصیات خاک، عملکرد و اجزای عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای رقم سینگل کراس 704. پایان‌نامة کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشگاه زابل، زابل.. 
  5.  شیخ‌مرادی ف.، عرجی ع.، عبدوسی و. و اسماعیلی ا. (1388) بررسی تأثیر پلیمرهای سوپرجاذب بر کاهش نیاز آبی در چمن رقم اسپورت. همایش ملی بحران آب در کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی. 3 صفحه.
  6.  شریفان ح.، مختاری پ. و هزارجریبی ا. (1392) بررسی اثر پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر تغییرات ضرایب معادلة نفوذ کوستیاکوف- لوئیس در آبیاری چویچه‌ای. آب و خاک (علوم و صنایع کشاورزی). 27(1): 212-205. 
  7. ظهوریان‌مهر م. (1385) سوپرجاذب ها. انتشارات انجمن پلیمر ایران، 83 صفحه.
  8. علیزاده ا. (1386) طراحی سیستم‌های آبیاری، جلد اول، طراحی سیستم‌های آبیاری سطحی. انتشارات دانشگاه امام رضا (ع)، 452 صفحه.
  9. عباسی ف. (1386) فیزیک خاک پیشرفته. انتشارات دانشگاه تهران، 250 صفحه.
  10. کریمی ا. و نادری م. (1386) بررسی اثرات کاربرد پلیمر سوپرجاذب بر عملکرد مادة خشک و کارایی مصرف آب ذرت علوفه‌ای در خاک‌های با بافت مختلف. پژوهش کشاورزی: آب، خاک و گیاه در کشاورزی. 7(3): 198-187.
  11. کوهستانی ش.، عسکری ن. و مقصودی ک. (1388) بررسی تأثیر هیدروژل‌های سوپرجاذب بر روی عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای تحت شرایط تنش خشکی. پژوهش آب ایران. 3(5): 78-71.
  12. گاردنر اف.پی.، یرس آر.بی.پی. و میشل آر.ال. (1392) فیزیولوژی گیاهان زراعی. ترجمة سرمدنیا غ. و کوچکی ع. انتشارات جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد، 400 صفحه.
  13. مجدم م. (1385) اثرات تنش کمبود آب و مدیریت مصرف نیتروژن بر خصوصیات اگروفیزیولوژیکی و عملکرد ذرت دانه‌ای هیبرید سینگل کراس 704 در شرایط آب‌وهوایی خوزستان. پایان‌نامة دکترا، دانشگاه علوم و تحقیقات خوزستان، اهواز.
  14. هاشمی‌نیا س.م. (1386) مدیریت آب در کشاورزی. انتشارات دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد، 536 صفحه.
  15. Dirksen C., Kool J.B., Koorevaar P. and Van Genuchten M.Th. (1993) HYSWASOR- Simulation model of hysteric water and Solute transport in the root zone, In: D. Russo and G. Dagan (Eds.), water flow and solute transport in soils, Springer Verlag, pp. 99-112.
  16. Dwyer L.M., Srewart D.W., Hamilton R.I. and Houwing L. (1992) Ear position and vertical distribution of leaf area in corn. Agronomy. 84: 430-438.
  17. Degdelen N., Yilmaz E., Sezgin F. and Gurbuz T. (2005) Water-yield relation and water use efficiency of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and second crop corn (Zea mays L.) in western Turkey. Agricultural Water Management. 75: 79-91.
  18. Feddes R.A., Kowalik P.J. and Zaradny H. (1978) Simulation of field water use and crop yield, Pudoc. Wageningen. 189 p.
  19. Farrell C., Ang X.Q. and Rayner J.P. (2013) Water-retention additives increase plant available water in green roof substrates. Ecological Engineering. 52: 112-8.
  20. Homaee M., Dirksen C. and Feddes R.A. (2002a) Simulation of root and water uptake, I. Non-uniform transient salinity using different macroscopic reduction function. Agricultural Water Management. 57: 89-109.
  21. Homaee M., Feddes R.A. and Dirksen C. (2002b) Simulation of root and water uptake, II. Non-uniform transient water stress using different macroscopic reduction function. Agricultural Water Management. 57: 111-126.
  22. Howell T.A., Tolk G.A., Schneider A.D. and Evett S.R. (1998) Evapotranspiration, yield and water use efficiency of corn hybrid differing in maturity. Agronomy. 90: 3-9.
  23. Huttermann A., Zommorodi M. and Reise K. (1999) Addition of hydrogels to soil prolonging the survival of pinus halepensis seedling subjected to drought. Soil and Tillage Research. 50: 295-304.
  24. Han Y.G., Yang P.L., Luo Y.P., Ren S.M., Zhang L.X. and Xu L. (2010) Porosity change model for watered super absorbent polymer-treated soil. Environmental Earth Sciences. 61: 1197-1205.
  25. Karam F., Breidy J., Stephan C.R. and Rauphael J. (2003) Evapotranspiration, yield and water use efficiency of drip irrigated corn in the Bekaa Valley of Lebanon. Agricultural Water Management. 63: 125-137.
  26. Koksal H. and Kanber R. (1998) Water-yield relations on second crop maize under Cukurova conditions. In: Symposium on Agriculture and Forest Meteorology 98, ITU, Istanbul, 21-23 October, pp. 310-317.
  27. Khodadadi Dehkordi D., Kashkuli H.A., Naderi A. and Shamsnia S.A. (2013) Evaluation of Deficit Irrigation and Superabsorbent Hydrogel on Some Growth Factors of SCKaroun701 Corn in the Climate of Khuzestan. Advances in Environmental Biology. 7(4): 527-534.
  28. Nissanka S.P., Dixon M.A. and Tollenaar M. (1997) Canopy gas exchange response to moisture stress in old and new maize hybrid. Crop Science. 37: 172-181.
  29. Oktem A., Simsek M. and Oktem A.G. (2003) Deficit irrigation effects on sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata sturt) with drip irrigation system in a semi-arid region. I, Water-yield relationship. Agricultural Water Management. 61: 63-74.
  30. Oschmann C., Kobayashi N., Perkuhn C., Grüneberg H. and Wissemeier A.H. (2009) Study to expand the range of wild plants for extensive roof greening systems using superabsorbent polymers (SAP). Acta Horticulturae. 813: 421-6.
  31. Olszewski M.W., Holmes M.H. and Young C.A. (2010) Assessment of physical properties and stonecrop growth in green roof substrates amended with compost and hydrogel. HortTechnology. 20: 438-44.
  32. Skaggs T.H., Van Genuchten Th., Shouse P.J. and Poss J.A. (2006) Macroscopic approaches to root water uptake as a function of water and salinity stress. Agricultural Water Management. 86: 140-149. 
  33. Schussler J.R. and Westgate M.E. (1991) Maize kernel set at low water potential: I. Sensitivity to reduce assimilates during early kernel growth. Crop Science. 31: 1189-1195.
  34. Steele D.D., Stegman E.C. and Gregor B.L. (1997) Irrigation scheduling methods for popcorn in the Northern Great Plains. Trans. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE). 40: 149-155.
  35. Tollenaar M. and Daynard T.B. (1982) Effect of source-sink ratio on dry matter accumulation and leaf senescence of maize. Canadian Plant Science. 58: 207-212.
  36. Tohidi-moghadam H.R., Shirani-Rad A.H., Nour-Monhammadi G., Habibi D., modarres-sanavy S.A.M., Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar M. and Dolatabadian A. (2009) Response of six oilseed rape genotypes to water stress and hydrogel application. Pesquisa Agropecuaria Tropical. 39: 243-250.
  37. Van Genuchten M.Th. (1987) A numerical model for water and solute movement in and below the root zone, Research Report, U.S. Salinity Lab. Riverside, C.A., pp. 221.
  38. Van Genuchten M.Th. and Hoffman G.J. (1984) Analysis of crop production, In: Shainberg, I. and Shlhevet, J.(eds.), soil salinity under irrigation, Springer Verlag, pp. 258-271.
  39. Zwart S.J. and Bastiaanssen W.G.M. (2004) Review of measured crop water productivity values for irrigated wheat, rice, cotton and maize. Agricultural Water Management. 69: 115-133.