Investigation of heavy metal accumulation on different crop under irrigation with Kermanshah treated municipal wastewater

Document Type : Research Paper


1 . Department of Water Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Department of Water Engineering, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 . Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran


In this study the accumulation of heavy metals including copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and manganese in different part (roots, stems and fruit or grain) of corn, barley, okra and parsley irrigated with treated municipal wastwater (TWW) of Kermanshah treatment plant and well water treatments (WEW as control treatment) investigated in randomized complete design for split plots with three replications for each crop in a real field conditions (in 2014). The results of statistical analysis showed that the effect of irrigation with wastewater on the accumulation of heavy metals in all the crops was statistically significant at the 5% level. Also, the accumulation amounts of iron, zinc and cadmium in different parts of studied crops under treated wastwater treatments were higher than well water treatments and were more than standard limits level in majority of cases. But it must be mentioned that although significant statistic and quantitative differences between treatments for accumulation of copper and manganese were found, but the amount of this metals in all crop parts and in the most cases was lower than permissible limits. Range of heavy metals in different crops under irrigation with wastewater was measured 14.1–37.7, 71.1–1165, 24.3–98.6, 0.1–2.30 and 15.8–269 mg kg-1 for copper, iron, zinc, cadmium and manganese, respectively. Additionally, heavy metals accumulation in roots were found higher than other parts of crops.


  1. تراهی ع (1384) احداث کلکسیون واریته های برتر کنار (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) کشور به منظور حفظ ذخایر توارثی و بررسی سازگاری واریته های کنار در شرایط استان خوزستان. گزارش پروژه تحقیقاتی. انتشارات مؤسسه تحقیقات خرما و میوه‏های گرمسیری. اهواز. 28 صفحه.
  2. تراهی ع (1385) تعیین خواص کمی و کیفی توده های محلی کنار Ziziphus spina-christi L.)) کشور. گزارش پروژه تحقیقاتی. انتشارات مؤسسه تحقیقات خرما و میوه‏های گرمسیری. اهواز. 34 صفحه.
  3. حبیب پور ک. و صفری ر (1388) راهنمای جامع کاربرد SPSS در تحقیقات پیمایشی. انتشارات متفکران. تهران. 866 صفحه.
  4. سپاسخواه ع.، توکلی ع. و موسوی ف (1385) اصول و کاربرد کم آبیاری. انتشارات کمیته ملی آبیاری و زهکشی ایران. تهران. 190 صفحه.
  5. سرائی تبریزی م.، همایی م.، بابازاده ح.، کاوه ف. و پارسی نژاد م (1394) مدل سازی پاسخ گیاه ریحان به تنش آبی در سطوح متفاوت رطوبتی. تحقیقات آب و خاک ایران. 46(2): 163-171.
  6. صالحی م.، کافی م. و کیانی ع (1390) اثر تنش شوری و کم آبی بر تولید زیست توده کوشیا (Kochia scoparie) و روند شوری خاک. به زراعی نهال و بذر. 2-27(4): 417-433.
  7. عصاره م (1387) ویژگی‌های زیستی درختان کنار در ایران و معرفی سایر گونه‌های جنس Ziziphus. انتشارات موسسه تحقیقات جنگل‌ها و مراتع کشور. تهران. 571 صفحه.
  8. علی‌حوری م. و تیشه زن پ (1390) برنامه راهبردی بخش خرما در کشور: زیر برنامه آبیاری. انتشارات کردگار. اهواز. 43 صفحه.
  9. علیزاده ا (1394) طراحی سیستم‌های آبیاری: طراحی سیستم‌های آبیاری تحت فشار. انتشارات دانشگاه امام رضا (ع). مشهد. 368 صفحه.
  10. کافی م.، صالحی م. و عشقی زاده ح (1389) کشاورزی شورزیست: راهبردهای مدیریت گیاه، آب و خاک. انتشارات دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد. مشهد. 377 صفحه.
  11. نجفی مود م.، علیزاده ا.، داوری ک.، کافی م. و شهیدی ع (1391) تعیین تابع برتر آب- شوری- عملکرد در دو رقم پنبه. آب و خاک. 26(3): 672-679.
  12. Azim A, Ghazanfar Sh, Latif A and Nadeem MA (2011) Nutritional evaluation of some top fodder tree leaves and shrubs of district Chakwal, Pakistan in relation to ruminant’s requirements. Nutrition. 10(1): 54-59.
  13. Grice AC (1997)Post-fire regrowth and survival of the invasive tropical shrubs Cryptostegia grandifolia and Ziziphus mauritiana. Ecology. 22(1): 49-55.
  14. Datta KK, Sharma VP and Sharma DP (1998) Estimation of a production functions for wheat under saline conditions. Agricultural Water Management. 36: 85-94.
  15. Hasegawa PM, Bressen RA, Zhu JK and Bohnert HJ (2000) Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity. Annual Review of Plant Physiology. 51: 463-499.
  16. Hooda P., Sindhu SS, Mehta PK and Ahlawat VP (1990) Growth, yield and quality of ber (Zizuphus mauritiana Lamk.) as effected by soil salinity. Horticultural Science. 65(5): 589-593.
  17. Loague K and Green RE (1991) Statistical and graphical methods for evaluating solute transport models: overview and application. Contaminant Hydrology. 7: 51-73.
  18. 18.Kurap SS, Hedar YS, Al-Dhaheri MA, El-Heawiety AY, Aly MAM and Alhadrami G (2009) Morpho-physiological evaluation and RAPD markers -assisted characterization of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) varieties for salinity tolerance. Food, Agriculture & Environment. 7(3&4): 503-507.
  19. Meena SK, Gupta NK, Gupta S, Khandelwal SK and Sastry EVD (2003) Effect of sodium chloride on the growth and gas exchange of young Ziziphus seedling rootstocks. Horticultural Science & Biptechnology. 78(4): 454-457.
  20. Merkley GP and Allen RG (2004) Sprinkle and trickle irrigation lectures. Biological and Irrigation Engineering Department, Utah State University, Logan, Utah.
  21. Nejat N and Sadeghi H (2012) Response of ziziphus spina-christi (L.) willd seedlings to NaCl - induced salinity. Agricultural Science Digest. 32 (1): 61- 65.
  22. Pareek OP (2001) Ber. International Center for Underutilised Crops, Southampton, UK, 290p.
  23. Rao GG and Khandelwal MK (2001) Performance of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and pomegranate (Punica granatum) on salt-effected soils. Soil Conservation. 29(1): 59-64.
  24. Rhoades JD, Kandiah A and Mashali AM(1992)The use of saline waters for crop production. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper 48. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 133p.
  25. Russo D and Bakker D (1986) Crop water production function for sweet corn and cotton irrigated with saline waters. Soil Science Society. 51: 1554-1562.