Effect of pH adjustment and chlorination on water and effluent characteristics to prevent emitter obstruction

Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc Student, Water Engineering Department, Agriculture College, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Water Engineering Department, Agriculture College, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Soil Sience Department, Agriculture College, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran

4 Instructor, Water Engineering Department, Agriculture College, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran


The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of free residual chlorine in the effluent at different concentrations of chlorine injection, between 50 to 350 ppm, at the pH levels of 6, 6.5 and 7 and the effect of chlorination on pH, electrical conductivity and the concentration of total dissolved solids in drinking water and effluent. The results showed that the concentration of free residual chlorine changes by changing the concentration of added chlorine in the effluent samples. To achieve the concentration of free residual chlorine to more than 1 ppm, 1, 150 and 200 ppm Chlorine was used at drinking water, effluent samples at pH levels of 6 and 6.5 and effluent at pH of 7. By reduction of effluent pH from 7 to 6-6.5 the amount of added chlorine to achieve free residual chlorine concentration at 1 ppm, decreases in 25 percent. Adding chlorine in liquid sodium hypochlorite form to drinking water and effluent samples at all pH levels, increased electrical conductivity, the concentration of total dissolved solids and pH. Although use of liquid sodium hypochlorite for chlorination of drip irrigation systems reduces the risk of biological obstruction but increased concentrations of dissolved solids, salinity and pH of irrigation water that increases the risk of chemical obstruction of emitters.


  1. حسن‌اقلی ع ر.، لیاقت ع. و میراب‌زاده م (۱۳۸۱) تغییرات میزان مواد آلی خاک در نتیجۀ آبیاری با فاضلاب‌های خانگی و خود پالایی آن. مجله آب و فاضلاب. ۴۲: 2-11.
  2. عابدی م ج. و نجفی پ (۱۳۸۰) استفاده از فاضلاب تصفیه‌شده در کشاورزی. انتشارات کمیتۀ ملی آبیاری و زهکشی ایران، تهران، 248 صفحه.
  3. فرزانه ع (۱۳۷۵) فعل و انفعالات شیمیایی آب و معضل گرفتگی قطره‌چکان‌ها در سیستم آبیاری قطره‌ای. مجلۀ آب و ماشین. ۲۲: ۵1-۵4.
  4. کاراندیش ف. شاهنظری ع. و ابراهیمی ک (1389) استفادۀ مجدد از پساب به‌عنوان منبعی مطمئن و قابل ملاحظه در کشاورزی. اولین همایش ملی مدیریت منابع آب اراضی ساحلی، دانشگاه ساری، ایران.
    1. Abedi koupai J and Bakhtiarifar A (2004) Effect of treated wastewater on hydraulic characteristics of emitters in trickle irrigation systems. Journal of Agricultural and Natural Source. 8(3): 33-43.
    2. Adin A and Sacks M (1991) Dripper clogging factors in wastewater irrigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 117(6): 813-826.
    3. ASAE Standards )2001( Design and Installation of Microirrigation Systems. ASAE EP405.1. St Joseph, Michigan, ASAE.
    4. Ayers R S and Westcot D W (1994) Water Quality for Agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage. Paper No. 29. Rev. 1. Rome, Italy.
    5. Bahri A (1999) Agriculture reuse of wastewater and global water management. Water Science and Technology. 40(4-5): 339-346.
    6. Batista R O, Santos D B d, Neto M F, Santos O d O and Barreto H B F (2012) Efficiency of chemical treatment on drip irrigation systems with sanitary sewage. Water Resources and Irrigation Management. 1(1): 25-29.
    7. Bucks D A, Nakayama F S and Gilbert R G (1979) Trikle irrigation water quality and prevention maintance. Agricultural Water Management. 2(2): 149-162.
    8. Capra A and Scicolone B (2007) Recycling of poor quality urban wastewater by drip irrigation systems. Journal of Cleaner Production. 15(16): 1529-1534.
    9. Capra A and Scicolone B (2004) Emitter and filter tests for wastewater reuse by drip irrigation. Agricultural Water Management. 68(2): 135-149.
    10. Clark G A and Smajstrla A G (1999) Treating irrigation systems with chlorine. Circular No. 1039. Gainesville, Fla: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences.
    11. Coelho R D and Resende R S (2001) Biological clogging of Netafim's drippers and recovering process through chlorination impact treatment. ASAE Paper No 012231. St. Joseph, Michigan, ASAE.
    12. Dazhuang Y, Zhihui B, Rowan M, Likun G, Shumei R, Peiling Y (2009) Biofilm structure and its influence on clogging in drip irrigation emitters distributing reclaimed wastewater. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 21(6): 834-841.
    13. Dehghanisanij H, Yamamoto T, Ahmad B O, Fujiyama H and Miyamoto K (2005) The effects of chlorine on emitter clogging induced by algae and protozoa and the performance of drip irrigation. Transactions of the ASAE. 48(2): 519-527.
    14. English S D (1985) Filtration and water treatment for microirrigation: Drip/trickle irrigation in action. In: Proc 3rd Int. Drip/Trickle Irrigation Congress. St. Joseph, Michigane, ASAE.
    15. Evans R G (2000) Microirrigation. Washington State University, Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center, USA.
    16. Feigin A, Ravina I and Shalhevet J (1991) Irrigation with treated sewage for invironmental protection. Advanced series in Agricultural Sciences 17. Springer, Berlin, Germany.
    17. Granberry D, Harrison K A and Kelley W T (2011) Drip Chemigation: injecting fertilizer, acid and chlorine. Bulletin 1130. University of Georgia.
    18. Hills D J, Tajrishy M A and Tchobanoglous G (2000) The influence of filtration on ultraviolet disinfection of secondary effluent for microirrigation. Transactions of the ASAE. 43(6): 1499-1505.
    19. Howell T A, Stevenson D S, Aljibury F K, Gitlin H M, Wu I P, Warrick A W and Raats P A C (1983) Design and operation of trickle (drip) systems. In: Jensen, M.E. (Ed.), Design and Operation of Farm Irrigation Systems. St Joseph, Michigane, ASAE.
    20. Jiu-sheng L, Yan-feng L and Hang Z (2012) Tomato yield and quality and emitter clogging as affected by chlorination schemes of drip irrigation systems applying sewage effluent. Journal of Integrative Agriculture. 11(10): 1744-1754.
    21. Keller J and Bliesner R D (1990) Sprinkle and Trickle Irrigation. New York, N. Y: Van Nostrand Reinhold.
    22. Li J S, Chen L, Li Y F, Yin J F and Zhang H (2010) Effects of chlorination schemes on clogging in drip emitters during applications of sewage effluent. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 26(4): 565-578.
    23. Nakayama F S, Boman B J and Pitts D J (2007) Chapter 11: Maintance .In: Microirrigation for Crop Production:Design, Operation and Management. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. 389-430.
    24. Nakayama F S and Bucks D A )1991( Water quality in drip/trickle irrigation: A review. Irrigation Science. 12(4): 187-192.
    25. Nakayama F S and Bucks D A (1986) Trickle Irrigation for Crop Production: Design, Operation and Management. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier. 9(3-2): 164-187.
    26. Pereira L S, Oweis T and Zairi A (2002) Irrigation management under water scarcity. Agricultural Water Management. 57(1): 175-206.

31. Pitts D J, Haman D Z and Smajstrla A G (2003) Causes and prevention of emitter plugging in microirrigation systems. Bulletin 258. The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.

  1. Rav−Acha C H, Kummel M, Salamon I and Adin A (1995) The effect of chemical oxidants on effluent constituent for drip irrigation. Water Research. 25(1): 119-129.
  2. Ravina I, Paz E, Sofer Z, Marcu A, Schischa A, Sagi G, Yechialy Z and Lev Y (1997) Control of emitter clogging in drip irrigation with stored treated municipal sewage effluent. Agricultural Water Management. 33(2-3): 127-137.
  3. Tajrishy M A, Hills D J and Tchobanoglous G (1994) Pretreatment of secondary effluent for drip irrigation.Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering. 120(4): 716-731.
  4. Trooien T P, Anderson R and Deboer D E (2003) Chlorination dose and response for biological effluent used for drip irrigation. Irrigation Association. 392-403.
  5. Trooien T P, Hills D J and Lamm F R (2002) Drip irrigation with biological effluent. In: Proc. Irrigation Assn. Int’I. Irrigation Technical Conference. New Orleans, LA.
  6. Yan D, Yang P, Rowan M, Ren S and Pitts D (2010) Biofilm structure and accumulation in the flow path of drip emitters using reclaimed wastewater. Transactions of the ASAE. 53(3): 751-758.