کاربرد فرآیند مسکات برای ارزیابی و بهبود عملکرد شبکه آبیاری و زهکشی گتوند

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته کارشناسی ارشد، گروه آبیاری، دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه مشهد، مشهد، ایران، و دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد گروه مهندسی و مدیریت آب، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

محدودیت منابع آب و بهره‌وری پایین آب در بخش کشاورزی، به عنوان بزرگ‌ترین مصرف‌کننده آب، ضرورت بهبود عملکرد شبکه‌های آبیاری را ایجاب می‌نماید. برای این منظور یکی از اقدامات لازم، استفاده از رویکردی نظام‌مند برای ارزیابی و بهبود عملکرد سامانه‌های آبیاری می‌باشد. رویکرد مسکات (MASSCOTE) روشی همه جانبه در ارزیابی سامانه‌های آبیاری در مقیاس متوسط تا بزرگ، از دیدگاه بهبود عملکرد تحویل آب است. مسکات در چارچوب یک روش گام‌به‌گام به تهیه برنامه‌های نوگرایی کمک می‌کند. در این تحقیق ارزیابی و بهبود عملکرد شبکه آبیاری گتوند با استفاده از رویکرد مسکات صورت گرفت. براساس نتایج به‌دست آمده، مشارکت بهره‌برداران و تلفیق نظرات و خواسته‌های منطقی آن‌ها در مدیریت شبکه گتوند، می‌تواند راهگشای حل بسیاری از مسائل شبکه باشد. ایجاد تشکل‌های آب‌بران، موجب کاهش مشکلات مرتبط با تخلفات برداشت آب، و سهولت دسترسی به بهره‌برداران و تنظیم قراردادهای ایشان می‌شود. اصلاح شیوه مرسوم توزیع آب و جایگزینی آن با روش توزیع حجمی، ظرفیت مناسبی برای کاهش تلفات آب و ارتقاء بهره‌وری در شبکه ایجاد می‌کند. با توجه به محاسبات صورت گرفته، آب ورودی، نشت و زهکشی شبکه به ترتیب 5/1209، 2/113 و 771 میلیون مترمکعب می‌باشند. براساس بیلان آبی شبکه، میزان تبخیر-تعرق محصولات 325 میلیون مترمکعب و نیاز خالص آبیاری با استفاده از اطلاعات هواشناسی، 389 میلیون مترمکعب محاسبه گردید، که میزان تبخیر-تعرق سالانه محصولات، 64 میلیون مترمکعب کمتر می‌باشد. با توجه به نتایج مسکات، جهت بهبود عملکرد شبکه، اصلاح بیلان آبی و تامین بهتر نیاز آبی محصولات، اصلاح الگوی کشت، بهبود روش‌های آبیاری، و اصلاح ساختار مدیریت شبکه توصیه می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Application of MASSCOTE approach to evaluate and improve the performance of Gotvand irrigation and drainage network

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sepideh Rahmati 1
  • Mohammad Javad Monem 2
1 . M. Sc. Graduate Department of Irrigation, Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran, and Ph. D. Student, Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professer Department of Water Engineering and Management, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Limited water resources and low productivity of water consumption in agricultural sector, as the largest water consumer, necessitate performance improvement of irrigation networks. One of the necessary measures to do this is to use a systematic and comprehensive approach to evaluate and improve the performance of irrigation systems. The MASSCOTE approach is a comprehensive approach for modernizing medium to large-scale irrigation systems in terms of improving water delivery performance. MASSCOTE helps evaluate and prepare modernization programs in a step-by-step manner. In this research, the performance evaluation and improvement of Gotvand irrigation network was evaluated using the MASSCOTE approach. Based on the obtained results, the participation of users and the integration of their opinions and logical demands in the management of Gotvand Network, can be the solution to many problems. Establishment of water consumer association will reduce the problems related to water abstraction violations, and make it easier for users to access and regulate their contracts. Modifying the conventional method of water distribution, by volumetric distribution method creates a good capacity to reduce water losses and improve productivity in the network. According to the calculations, the annual supplied water, leakage and drainage of the network are 1209.5, 113.2 and 771 million cubic meters, respectively. Based on the network water balance, the evapotranspiration rate of crops was estimated at 325 million cubic meters, and the net irrigation requirement was calculated using meteorological information, was 389 million cubic meters, which is 64 million cubic meters less than the evapotranspiration rate. According to the results of MASSCOTE, in order to improve the network performance, the water balance should be improved to better maintain crop water requirement. It is recommended to change the cultivation pattern to a lower water consume pattern, and to reform the irrigation methods, and network management structure.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • modernization
  • Network management evaluation
  • Operation and maintenance management
  • Water delivery services
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